Computer Motherboard Parts And Functions PDF

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  • The motherboard is the heart of any personal computer.
  • It provides system resources for interrupt requests (IRQ lines), DMA channels, and Input-Output locations).
  • Support the core components such as CPU, chipsets &Real Time Clock (RTC).
  • It handles all system memory including SD RAM, BIOS RAM, and CMOS RAM.

Motherboard Types

The motherboard is a printed circuit board.

 Active:

o It is comprehensive and the RAM, ROM, and CPU are attached to the motherboard.

o So we can’t able to upgrade by adding RAM or processor in the motherboard.

o One way to upgrade is to replace it with a newer one.

o Example: Only PCI bus slots can be added.

 Passive:

o More than interconnecting slots.

o No major chips on the black plane.

o The CPU, RAM, BIOS ROM, and other central process components are fabricated on the board that simply plug into one of the backplane slots.

 Black Plane:

o It is a group of electrical connectors in parallel with each other.

o So the pin and connectors are linked to the same relative pin of other connectors forming a computer bus.

o The backplane is a printed circuit board containing connections (slots) for expansion boards and allows for communication between all connected boards.


o Malfunction in the power supply prevents the PC from booting.

o It is not able to supply enough power to keep the system running properly.

o chronic problems can help you navigate the gray area.

The computer freezes intermittently:

o Most computers freeze due to software applications and configuration errors.

o The time you suspect a power problem is when your system suddenly starts freezing for no reason at all.

o Freezes several times a day or several times per hour.

o, Check it, maybe power problems.

o If the system ends to freeze when it is running on a different power circuit.

There are random memory errors:

o If you added a new application or device driver or upgraded the system.

o Suddenly see a rash of memory errors.

o Occasional memory error message does not necessarily indicate a power problem.

o Memory error occurs when the PC runs on a different power.

Data is lost or corrupted on the hardware:

A hard drive problem can be the result of several problems (lost data cable or operator error).

o If the drive seems to be having difficulty reading or writing the disk.

o Check the power first before attempting to back up the disk or run any disk-based diagnostics.

o If you attempt to defragment with the present power problem it will damage the HDD more.

There is trouble communicating with modems or peripherals:

o You may see a rash of communication errors when trying to use a modem or mouse if the peripherals are connected and installed properly.

o The system suffers from chronic hardware failures:

o Fault may reoccur after a few days or a week For Example memory error, replace the memory and the fault.

o It goes away but the same fault occurs after a few days.

o This type of problem suggests there is power spikes are entering the system’s AC line.


o It is used to conserve power.

o Power conservation is important for mobile PCs.

The operating system provides the controls needed for selecting power management.

 Basic conservation:

o You can turn off your monitor and hard drive automatically after the period of inactivity.

o This conserves a great deal of power while the system is at rest.

 Stand by:

o When it is idle.

o In stand by your monitor and HDD turn off and some computer devices are powered down.

o When you want to use it again it comes out quickly from standby and restores exactly as you left it.

 Hibernation:

o After longer periods of inactivity power manages to hibernate the feature.

o Turn off your monitor hard drive first.

o It idle time continuous the system will save everything in memory on disk and then turn off the computer.

o When you restart your computer the last state is restored to memory for the disk.

o Desktop was restored exactly as you left

Language English
No. of Pages26
PDF Size8 MB

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