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Marketing NCERT Textbook With Solutions PDF Free Download
Chapter 11: Marketing
The term marketing has been described by different people in different ways. Some people believe that marketing is the same as ‘shopping’.
Whenever they go out shopping for certain products or services, they describe it as marketing.
There are some other people who confuse marketing with ‘selling’ and feel that marketing activity starts after a product or service has been produced. Some people describe it to mean ‘merchandising’ or designing a product.
Traditionally, marketing has been described in terms of its functions or activities.
In this respect, marketing has been referred to as the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producers to consumers.
As we know, most manufacturing firms do not produce goods for their own consumption
but for consumption or use by others.
Therefore, to move the goods and services from the producer to consumers, a number of activities, such as product designing or merchandising, packaging, warehousing, transportation, branding, selling, advertising, and pricing are required. All these activities are referred to as marketing activities.
Thus, ‘merchandising’, ‘selling’ and distribution are all parts of a large number of activities undertaken by a firm, which is collectively called marketing.
It may be noted here that marketing is not merely a post-production activity. It includes many activities that are performed even before goods are actually produced and continue even after the goods have been sold.
For example, activities such as identification of customer needs, collection of information for developing the product, designing a suitable product package, and giving it a brand name are
performed before the commencement of the actual production.
Similarly, many follow-up activities are required for maintaining good customer relations for procuring repeat sales.
In modern times, emphasis is placed on describing marketing as a social process. It is a process whereby people exchange goods and services for money or for something of value to them.
Taking the social perspective, Phillip Kolter has defined marketing as, “a social process by which individual groups obtain what they need and want to create offerings and freely exchanging products and services of value to others.
The process of marketing helps individuals and groups in obtaining what they need and want.
Thus, the primary reason or motivation for people to engage in the process of marketing is to satisfy some of their needs or wants.
In other words, the focus of the marketing process is on the satisfaction of the needs and wants of individuals and organizations.
A need is a state of felt deprivation or feeling of being deprived of something. If unsatisfied, it leaves a person unhappy and uncomfortable.
For example, on getting hungry, we become uncomfortable and start looking for objects that are capable of satisfying our hunger.
Needs are basic to human beings and do not pertain to a particular product. Wants, on the other hand, are culturally defined objects that are potential satisfiers of needs.
In other words, human needs shaped by such factors as culture, personality, and religion are called wants. A basic need for food, for example, may take various forms such as the want for dosa and rice for a South Indian and chapatti and vegetables for a North Indian person.
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 11 Marketing
Q.1 State any two advantages of branding to marketers of goods and services?
Advantages of branding to marketers of goods and services are:
1. It enables a firm in distinguishing its product from the competitor firm.
2. A product when is provided branding will make it known among customers, it will attract new business. Branding makes advertising of the product easier.
Q.2 How does branding help in differential pricing?
A brand name helps in creating an image among the consumers about the product quality. It helps customers in differentiating products of different firms.
Marketers can charge different prices and having a good brand image the organization can charge premium prices.
Q.3 What is the societal concept of marketing?
The societal concept of marketing is the concept where the needs of the market are identified by the organization along with target customers.
It helps in delivering the products and services efficiently. Businesses should meet the long-term requirements of the consumer and look after their well-being through their products.
Q.4 List the characteristics of convenience products.
Products that can be bought immediately on a frequent basis and with minimum effort are referred to as convenience products. Following are the characteristics of convenience products:
1. Products are easily available and there is minimum effort and time is required. Also, products are located at convenient places.
2. These products are frequently consumed and have an ongoing demand. Essential commodities are classified as convenience products.
3. The convenience goods are available at a low prices and in units of small products.
4. These products have high competition and require a good amount of advertising.
Q.5 Enlist the advantages of packaging consumer products.
Packaging is the technique of designing a container for a product. It has the following advantages:
1. It enables product differentiation.
2. By using different colors, symbols, pictures it acts as a promotional tool.
3. Greater convenience is achieved in product handling.
4. It protects the quality of the product by preventing breaking or spoiling of the product during transportation and storage.
NCERT Class 12 Business Studies Textbook Chapter 11 With Answer PDF Free Download