The Problems Of Philosophy PDF By Bertrand Russell

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Chapter 1: Appearance And Reality

Is there any knowledge in the world that is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it?

This question, which at first sight might not seem difficult, is really one of the most difficult that can be asked.

When we have realized the obstacles in the way of a straightforward and confident answer, we shall be well launched on the study of philosophy.

For philosophy is merely the attempt to answer such ultimate questions, not carelessly and dogmatically, as we do in ordinary life and even in the sciences.

But critically, after exploring all that makes such questions puzzling, and after realizing all the vagueness and confusion that underlie our ordinary ideas.

In daily life, we assume as certain many things which, on closer scrutiny, are found to be so full of apparent contradictions that only a great amount of thought enables us to know what it is that we really may believe.

In the search for certainty, it is natural, to begin with, our present experiences, and in some sense, no doubt, knowledge is to be derived from them.

But any statement as to what it is that our immediate experiences make us know is very likely to be wrong.

It seems to me that I am now sitting in a chair, at a table of a certain shape, on which I see sheets of paper with writing or print.

By turning my head I see out of the window buildings and clouds and the sun.

I believe that the sun is about ninety-three million miles from the earth; that it is a hot globe many times bigger than the earth; that, owing to the earth’s rotation, it rises every morning, and will continue to do so for an indefinite time in the future.

AuthorBertrand Russell
Language English
No. of Pages272
PDF Size7.8 MB

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The Problems Of Philosophy Book PDF Free Download

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