Law of Diminishing Returns PDF

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Law of Diminishing Returns In Agri

A correct understanding of the law of diminishing returns is fundamental to its application in any study designed to measure the effect on output of increasing units of an input factor, as well as its statement as a principle and what it means for output. Is in the form of plant growth or animal production.

Soon after von Liebig’s emphasis on the need for various mineral nutrients required for plant growth, the existing relationship between additional units of any input factor required for plant growth and the additional output caused by those additional units was noted. Efforts were made to bring it under some law.

Von Liebig developed his law of the minimum, that is, the productivity of an area is directly related to the essential component contained in the smallest quantity in the soil, in this law he recognized not only the importance of the limiting factor in plant growth. Rather, there is also a need for a balanced plant-food supply.

However, the law itself was not accurately stated, and it required the thought and research of four generations of soil chemists to develop a sufficient body of data under carefully designed control conditions to show (1) that The law as stated by von Liebig. was wrong and (2) to make possible a correct statement of the law.

Mitscherlich {10, 11, 12, IS, 14, 15, 16, 17) was preceded by Mayer (9) and Wagner (20), who, after years of experiment, finally formulated a law to express the decreasing growth of production. Restored. With adding the same units of any input factor.

He first used various forms of phosphoric acid fertilizer in pot experiments and showed that as the use of any form of phosphoric acid was increased, the yield also increased, but at a decreasing rate.

For example, as the use of monobasic phosphate of lime was increased from 1 to 10 units, the yield increased at a lower rate. Later experiments were conducted with other fertilizer ingredients, and these were followed in turn by experiments involving water and sunlight. various.

The experiment of changing the amount of sunlight is interesting. Plants were grown in greenhouse pots shaded by individual nets in numbers ranging from 2 to 10 for different plants, and the observed growth was compared with full growth in the open.

Some results are shown in Table 1. The increase in growth (or yield) in this example, in general, shows a decreasing rate in each of the different plants used in the experiment.

It is unnecessary to add to the number of experiments carried out in the United States and England, as well as in Germany, to prove the existence of this special relation, and it was work of this type that was positively accepted by the scientists of the law. Proof of the inaccuracy of von Liebig’s statement about.

It also showed that as any element required for plant growth was reduced (assuming the amount in the soil was less than optimal) the yield was reduced at an increasing rate.

This led to Mitscherlich’s famous law of soil. The next specific development in the theoretical aspects of the law of diminishing returns was to give mathematical expression to the law.

Experiments have shown that cause-effect relationships are so definite that they can be shown with mathematical precision.

Both Mitscherlich and Spielmann, working independently and unknown to each other, showed through empirical means that the input-output relations for the production of various plants and animals took a definite form that a Is expressed by a logarithmic curve.

This curve is so constructed that each point on the vertical axis bears the same relation to the maximum vertical rise when expressed in terms of the corresponding point on the horizontal axis as any other point on the axis.

If, for example, a unit of any input factor, horizontal axis, results in a yield, vertical axis, of one-half the possible maximum that this variant can cause, then the second unit of input will result in the production of one-half the remainder; and the addition of a third unit of the input factor will yield one half the remaining possible production which this factor can cause (Ij 19).

It is obvious that this curve represents diminishing output per unit of additional input and that exact expression can be given it.

In each of these experiments, especially those performed by Mitscherlich, productions were obtained with the variation of a single element of plant growth. Nitrogen, phosphorus, or sunlight was varied separately, but not two were varied simultaneously.

It was in connection with the variation of more than one input factor that Mitscherlich indicated his inability to show and measure results.

Baule, however, using some of Mitscherlich’s data, deductively arrived at another mathematical expression which when plotted shows a sigmoid or S curve rather than the characteristic logarithmic curve so commonly accepted as the relationship existing between added units of input of any one factor and the corresponding additional outputs.

In working on this problem Baule expressed as 100 the maximum possible yield due to the variation of any single factor (¿).

He then determined the amount of the variable element necessary to produce 50 percent of the maximum, called the Baule unit.

If x units of the variable produced 50 percent of the possible maximum, 2x units would produce 50 percent plus one-half of 50 percent (remaining production) or 75 percent of the maximum, and 3x units would produce 75 percent plus one-half of 25 percent or 87K percent, etc.

The tabular expressions of the Baule relationships of individual elements of plant growth are shown in Table 2.

Language English
No. of Pages12
PDF Size0.5 MB

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