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Content In TN History Book
- Early India: From the Beginnings to the Indus Civilisation
- Early India: The Chalcolithic, Megalithic, Iron Age
- and Vedic Cultures
- Rise of Territorial Kingdoms and New Religious Sects
- Emergence of State and Empire
- Evolution of Society in South India
- Polity and Society in Post-Mauryan Period
- The Guptas
- Harsha and Rise of Regional Kingdoms
- Cultural Development in South India
- Advent of Arabs and Turks
- Later Cholas and Pandyas Bahmani and Vijayanagar Kingdoms
- Cultural Syncretism: Bhakti Movement in India
- The Mughal Empire
- The Marathas
- The Coming of the Europeans
- Effects of British Rule
- Early Resistance to British Rule
- Towards Modernity
1.1 Pre-historic India
The period before the development of the script is called the pre-historic times. It is also referred to as the Stone Age. When we talk about the Stone Age, we include the entire of South Asia, the region covering India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bangladesh, as a whole.
Human ancestors are likely to have first evolved in Africa and later migrated to different parts of the world. The earliest human ancestor species to migrate out of Africa was the Homo erectus. Till the end of the 20th century,
1.2 Hunter and gatherers of the Historical Period
The hunter and gatherers using microlithic tools continued to live in the later period, even after the development of the Neolithic, Iron Age, and historical periods.
Perhaps they became part of the marginalized communities when the people who lived in the cities acquired more wealth.
Some of the people who live in the forests even today in some remote areas and also in the Andaman region could be considered as those people who prefer to live by hunting and gathering.
Many such groups lived in the 19th and 20th centuries, as recorded in Edgar Thurston’s Castes and Tribes of Southern India. Describing them as primitive is incorrect.
They should be considered as people who preferred to live by hunting and gathering.
When the Indus Civilisation was at its peak, Tamil Nadu had microlithic hunter-gatherers. The Andhra Karnataka region had the agro-pastoralists of the Neolithic period.
A conventional view of the timeline of Indian history would simply shift its themes from the Indus Civilization through the Vedic Culture to the Age of the Mahajanapadas.
But, if we consider the time after the decline of the Indus Civilization, covering from c. 2000 BCE to 600 BCE and the space stretching from Kashmir to Kanyakumari and Arunachal Pradesh to Gujarat, it is clear that diverse cultures and people who spoke different languages lived in ancient India.
This chapter focuses on the Late Harappan, Chalcolithic, Megalithic Iron Age and Vedic Cultures and the Aryans, except for the Indus Civilization which was covered in the previous lesson.
Essentially, it deals with the history of India from about 3000 BCE, up to the emergence of the Mahajanapadas, with a focus on social and economic changes.
Chalcolithic Cultures of South India
The southern part of India has not produced cultural evidence of a full-fledged chalcolithic culture. Perforated and spouted vessels have been found in some sites.
Copper bronze tools like chisels and flat axes occur at these sites. Stone tools continued
to be used in this area. Black on red ware pottery is found.
These people survived through animal rearing and agriculture. Millets, pulses, and horse gram were cultivated, and fruits, leaves, and tubers were collected.
|Author||Government of TN|
|No. of Pages||320|
|PDF Size||21 MB|
Tamilnadu Class 11th History Book PDF Free Download