List of Diseases and Their Causes PDF

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List of Diseases and Their Causes

When a person is inflicted with a disease, he exhibits a few symptoms and signs that range from normal to severe depending upon the medical condition.

Hence, in order to identify different diseases, the normalcy of an entity needs to be studied and understood as a clear demarcation between disease and disease-free is not always apparent.

The diseases are usually caused by many factors rather than a single cause.

When we have a disease, we eventually show some signs, such as headaches, cough, cold, or weakness. These signs are referred to as “symptoms.”

In almost all diseases, symptoms are shown immediately after having been struck by the disease. However, it varies depending on the seriousness of the disease.

Today, there are various ways to classify diseases.

Classification of Diseases

Classification of Diseases
Anatomic ClassificationThis type refers to the affected organ or tissueHeart disease
Topographical ClassificationFurther classified into types such as vascular disease, chest disease, gastrointestinal disease, and abdominal diseases. These are then handled by specializations in medicine that follow these topographical classificationsAn ENT specialist (Ear-Nose-Throat)
A Gastroenterology specialist etc.
Physiological ClassificationThis type includes diseases that affect a process or a function (such as metabolism, digestion or respiration)Diabetes
Pathological ClassificationThis type considers the nature of the disease. For instance, cancer is associated with uncontrolled cell growth, and there are variations or types in the disease.Neoplastic diseases (uncontrolled cell growth that is characteristic of cancer)
Inflammatory diseases (autoimmunity)
Epidemiological ClassificationThis classification refers to the rate of occurrence, distribution and the control of the disease in a population.Epidemic diseases such as the plague and Influenza pandemic of 1918–1919


An allergic reaction arises when the body becomes hypersensitive to certain foreign substances called allergens.

This usually happens when the immune system reacts abnormally to any seemingly harmless substances.

Common allergens include dust, pollen, animal dander, mites, feathers, latex, and also certain food products like nuts and gluten.

Peanuts and other nuts have the capability to cause severe allergic reactions that may induce life-threatening conditions such as difficulty in breathing, tissues swelling up and blocking the airways, and anaphylaxis shock.

Other common and less life-threatening symptoms include coughing, sneezing, running nose, itchy and red eyes, and skin rashes. One of the best examples of this allergic reaction is asthma.

Sometimes, bee stings and ant bites also trigger allergies. Consumption of shellfish and certain medications can induce allergic reactions.

Asthma is a chronic disease, that mainly affects the bronchi and bronchioles of the lungs. One of the factors responsible for this is airborne allergens such as pollens or dust.

Symptoms include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, and coughing.

Disease-Causing Agents

We have seen the classification of different entities based on various characteristics, for simplification, we classify organisms to group them together and study them as a class.

Similarly, diseases are caused by different microorganisms and can be classified as diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.

Some diseases are also caused by multicellular organisms such as worms.

Listed below are a few diseases and the disease-causing agents

List of Diseases
DiseaseCausative Agent
PlaguePasteurella pestis
CholeraVibrio comma (Vibrio cholera)
TetanusClostridium tetani
AnthraxBacillus anthracis
Whooping coughBordetella pertussis
Human papillomavirus infectionHuman papillomavirus
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
HepatitisHepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, Hepatitis E viruses
ChickenpoxVaricella-zoster virus (VZV)
MeningoencephalitisNaegleria fowleri (amoeba)
Language English
No. of Pages10
PDF Size0.06 MB

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