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Chapter 2: Globalisation And Social Change
India was not isolated from the world even two thousand years ago. We have read in our history textbooks about the famous Silk Route, which centuries ago connected India to the great civilizations, which existed in China, Persia, Egypt, and Rome.
We also know that throughout India’s long past, people from different parts came here, sometimes as traders, sometimes as conquerors, and sometimes as migrants in search of new lands and settled down here.
In remote Indian villages often people ‘recall’ a time when their ancestors lived elsewhere, from where they came and settled down where they now live.
We began our story of social and economic development in modern India from the colonial period.
You will recall from chapter 1 that modern capitalism had a global dimension from its very inception. Colonialism was part of the system that required new sources of capital, raw materials, energy, markets, and a global network that sustained it.
Often globalization today identifies the large-scale movement of people or migration as a defining feature. You know, however, that perhaps the greatest movement of people was the migration of European people who settled down in the Americas and Australia.
You will remember how indentured laborers were taken away in ships from India to work in distant parts of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. And the slave trade that carted thousands of Africans away to distant shores.
Independent India retained a global outlook. In many senses, this was inherited from the Indian nationalist movement.
Commitment to liberation struggles throughout the world, and solidarity with people from different parts of the world were very much part of this vision.
Many Indians traveled overseas for education and work. Migration was an ongoing process. Export and import of raw materials, goods, and technology was very much part of development since independence.
Foreign firms did operate in India. So we need to ask ourselves whether the current process of change is radically different from anything we have seen in the past.
We have seen that India had significant links with the global world from very early times.
We are also aware that western capitalism as it emerged in Europe was both built upon and maintained by global control over the resources of other countries as in colonialism.
The important question is, however, whether globalization is just about global interconnections.
Or is it about some significant changes in the capitalist system of production and communication, organization of labour and capital, technological innovations and cultural experiences, ways
of governance and social movements?
These changes are significant even if some of the patterns were already evident in the early stages of capitalism.
Some of the changes such as those flowing from the communication revolution have in a myriad way transformed the way we work and live.
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Globalisation And Social Change
1. Choose any topic that is of interest to you and discuss how you think globalisation has affected it. You could choose the cinema, work, marriage or any other topic.
Ans. 1. The effect of globalization on cinema is far-reaching. It affects us, on culture, our modes of behavior, mode of thinking, etc. but affects us differently for, it may mean new patterns and opportunities in culture, music, dance, etc. but for others the challenge for their own style of music for the identity of culture, for own dance, etc.
2. Advancement in IT (Information Technology), photography, musical instrument, cameras, etc. had definitely positive effects on cinema due to globalization. It has opened wider and larger markets for film producers and even for people to enjoy more films of their own choices and liking.
3. Sociology studies the social or cultural consequences of globalization. With the opening up of the market and removal of restrictions to the import of many products, we have many more products from different comers of the world in our neighborhood shops.
The dramatic changes in the media (including cinema) are perhaps the most visible effect of globalization. Some of the Indian film producers, directors, actors and so on are welcome in other countries and regions or film industries of the world.
Similarly, several foreign filmmakers, directors, heroes, and heroines are being called and welcomed by different countries and film industries.
4. Children films, cartoon films, comedies, social and love films are produced in several languages side by side. Film festivals and film promotion shows are being screened in different countries.
5. Music, dance forms, styles of presentations, natural and other scenes, and filmy sets are mutually exchanged and are impressing the minds of the concerned people of the film industry on a universal level.
2. What are the distinctive features of a globalised economy ? Discuss.
Ans. The distinctive features of a Global Economy are:
1. Globalisation refers to the growing interdependence between different peoples, regions, and countries in the world as social and economic relationships come to stretch worldwide.
2. Although economic forces are an integral part of globalization, it would be wrong to suggest that they alone produce it. Globalisation involves a stretching of social and economic relationships throughout the world.
This stretching is pushed by certain economic policies very broadly. This process in India is termed liberalization. The term liberalization refers to a range of policy decisions that the Indian state took in 1991 to open up the Indian economy to the world market.
This marked a break with an earlier stated policy of the government to have greater control over the economy.
3. Among the many economic factors during globalization, the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) is particularly important.
4. Since July 1991, the Indian economy has witnessed a series of reforms in all major sectors of the economy (agriculture, industry, trade, foreign investment, and technology, public sector, financial institutions, etc).
The basic assumption was that greater integration into the global market would be beneficial to the Indian economy.
5. Hie process of liberalization also involved the taking of loans from international institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
These loans are given under certain conditions. The government makes commitments to pursue certain kinds of economic measures that involve a policy of structural adjustments.
These adjustments usually mean cuts in state expenditure on the social sector such as health, education, and social security. There is also a greater say by international institutions such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
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NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Chapter 6 Globalisation And Social Change With Answer PDF Free Download