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Chapter 5: Change And Development In Industrial Society
Many of the great works of sociology were written at a time when industrialisation was new and machinery was assuming great importance.
Thinkers like Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim associated a number of social features with industry, such as urbanization, the loss of face-to-face relationships that were found in rural areas where people worked on their own farms or for a landlord they knew, and their substitution by anonymous professional relationships in modern factories and workplaces.
Industrialization involves a detailed division of labor. People often do not see the end result of their work because they are producing only one small part of a product.
The work is often repetitive and exhausting. Yet, even this is better than having no work at all, i.e., being unemployed.
Marx called this situation alienation, when people do not enjoy work, and see it as something they have to do only in order to survive, and even that survival depends on whether the technology has room for any human labour.
Industrialization leads to greater equality, at least in some spheres. For example, caste distinctions do not matter anymore on trains, buses, or in cyber cafes.
On the other hand, older forms of discrimination may persist even in a new factory or workplace settings. And even as social inequalities are reducing, economic or income inequality is growing in the world.
Often social inequality and income inequality overlap, for example, in the domination of upper caste men in well-paying professions like medicine, law or journalism. Women often get paid less than men for similar work.
While the early sociologists saw industrialisation as both positive and negative, by the mid 20th century, under the influence of modernisation theory, industrialisation came to be seen as inevitable and positive.
Modernisation theory argues that societies are at different stages on the road to modernisation, but they are all heading in the same direction. Modern society, for these theorists, is represented by the West.
The experience of industrialization in India is in many ways similar to the western model and in many ways different. Comparative analysis of different countries suggests that there is no standard model of industrial capitalism.
Let us start with one point of difference, relating to what kind of work people are doing.
In developed countries, the majority of people are in the services sector, followed by industry and less than 10% are in agriculture (ILO figures).
The first modern industries in India were cotton, jute, coal mines and railways. After independence, the government took over the ‘commanding heights of the economy.’
This involved defence, transport and communication, power, mining and other projects which only government had the power to do, and which was also necessary for private industry to flourish.
In India’s mixed economy policy, some sectors were reserved for government, while others were open to the private sector.
But within that, the government tried to ensure, through its licensing policy, that industries were spread over different regions.
Before independence, industries were located mainly in the port cities like Madras, Bombay, Calcutta (now, Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata, respectively).
But since then, we see that places like Baroda, Coimbatore, Bengaluru, Pune, Faridabad, and Rajkot have become important industrial centers.
The government also tried to encourage the small-scale sector through special incentives and assistance.
Many items like paper and wood products, stationery, glass, and ceramics were reserved for the small-scale sector.
In 1991, the large-scale industry employed only 28 percent of the total workforce engaged in manufacturing, while the small-scale and traditional industries employed 72 percent.
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Change And Development In Industrial Society
1. Choose any occupation you see around you – and describe it along the following lines (a) social composition of the work force – caste, gender, age, region (b) labour process – how the work takes place, (c) wages and other benefits, (d) working conditions – safety, rest times, working hours, etc.
Ans. 1. Since 1990’s, the government has followed policy of liberalization. Private companies, especially foreign firms encouraged investment in sector which was earlier reserved for the government.
2.Generally people get jobs through advertisement or through employment exchange in industrial sector. Man and women both work in the industrial sector. The persons engaged in industry get salary or wages along with certain benefits like HRA (House Rent Allowance) and Medical facilities.
3.Job recruitment as a factory worker takes a different pattern. In the past, many workers got their jobs through contractors or jobbers. In the Kanpur textile mills, these jobbers were known as mistress, and were themselves workers. They came from the same regions and communities as the workers, but because they had the owner’s backing they bossed over the workers.
4. The ministry also put community-related pressures on the workers. Nowadays, the importance of the jobber has come down, and both management and unions play a role in recruiting their own people.
5. Workers also expect that they can pass on their jobs to their children. Many factories employ badly workers who substitute for regular permanent workers who are on leave. Many of these badli workers have actually worked for many years for the same company but are not given the same status and security. This is what is called contract work in the organized sector.
6.The contractor system is most visible in the hiring of casual labour for work on construction sites, brickyards and so on. The contractor goes to villages and asks if people want work. He will loan them some money. This loan includes the cost of transport of the work side.
7.The loaned money is treated as an advance wages and the worker works without wages until the loan is repaid. In the past, agricultural laborers were tied to their landlords by debt.
Now, however, by moving to casual industrial work, while they are still in debt, they are not bound by other social obligations to the contractor. In that sense, they are freer in an industrial society.
They can break the contract and find another employer. Sometimes, whole families migrate and the children help their parents.
8.Presently social composition of the work force in industry is concerned, people from all caste and both gender from the age group of fifteen to sixty work. Some regions of the country are having more industries than the others.
9. Different workers have a different working periods in different industries according to their qualification, experience, age and risk of the job.
The contract laborers get a fixed amount as per the terms and conditions of contract. In organized sector, pay and allowances are better than the unorganized sector.
10. The government has passed a number of rules to regulate working conditions. The Mines Act 1952 specifies the maximum number of hours a person can be made to work in a week, they need to pay overtime for any extra hours worked and safety rules.
These rules may be followed in the big companies, but not in smaller mines ‘ and quarries. Moreover, sub-contracting is widespread.
11.Workers in underground mines face very dangerous conditions, due to flooding, fire, the collapse of roofs and sides, the emission of gases and ventilation failures. Many workers develop breathing problems and diseases like tuberculosis and silicosis.
2.In the account of brick making, bidi rolling, software engineers or mines that are described in the boxes, describe the social composition of the workers. What are the working conditions and facilities available? How do girls like Madhu feel about their work?
Ans.•Social institution like caste, kinship, networks, gender and regions also influence the way the work is organized or the way in which products are marketed.
•In certain jobs and departments we find more women working than the men. For example, they are working more in numbers in nursing or teaching jobs than in other sectors like engineering.
•In India, over 90% of the work, whether it is in agriculture, industry or services is in the unorganized or informal sector.
•Very few people have the experience of employment in large firms where they get to meet people from other regions and backgrounds.
•Urban settings do provide some corrective to this your neighbors in a city may be from a different place – by and large, work for most Indians is still in small-scale workplaces.
•Nearly 60% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and utilities), and 23% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services, etc.).
•The share of agriculture has declined sharply, and services contribute approximately half. This is a very serious situation because it means that the sector where the maximum people are employed is not able to generate much income for them.
•India is still largely an agricultural country. The service sector – shops, banks, the IT industry, hotels and other services are employing more people and the urban middle class is growing, along with urban middle class values like those we see in television serials and films.
•But we also see that very few people in India have access to secure jobs, with even the small number in regular salaried employment becoming more insecure due to the rise in contract labour.
•Employment by the government was a major avenue for increasing the well-being of the population, but now even that is coming down.
•Girls like Madhu enjoy their work of rolling bidis and filling tobacco-rolled tendu leaves.
•They get the opportunity to sit close to their family members and other women and listen to their chat. They spend most of their time in work in the factory of bidis.
•Due to long hours of sitting in the same posture daily, they suffer from backache. Madhu wants to restart her schooling.
- Introducing Indian Society PDF
- The Demographic Structure Of The Indian Society PDF
- Globalisation And Social Change PDF
- Mass Media And Communications PDF
- Social Movements PDF
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Chapter 5 Change And Development In Industrial Society With Answer PDF Free Download