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The Demographic Structure Of The Indian Society NCERT Textbook With Solutions Book PDF Free Download
Chapter 2: The Demographic Structure Of The Indian Society
Demography is the systematic study of the population. The term is of Greek origin and is composed of the two words, demos (people) and graphein (describe), implying the description of people.
Demography studies the trends and processes associated with a population including – changes in population size; patterns of births, deaths, and migration; and the structure and composition of the population, such as the relative proportions of women, men, and different age
There are different varieties of demography, including formal demography which is a largely quantitative field, and social demography which focuses on the social, economic, or political aspects of populations.
All demographic studies are based on processes of counting or enumeration – such as the census or the survey – which involve the systematic collection of data on the people residing within a specified territory.
Demography is a field that is of special importance to sociology – in fact, the emergence of sociology and its successful establishment as an academic discipline owed a lot to demography.
Two different processes happened to take place at roughly the same time in Europe during the latter half of the eighteenth century – the formation of nation-states as the principal form of political organization, and the beginnings of the modern science of statistics.
The modern state had begun to expand its role and functions. It had, for instance, begun to
take an active interest in the development of early forms of public health management, policing and maintenance of law and order, economic policies relating to agriculture and industry, taxation and revenue generation, and the governance of cities.
This new and constantly expanding sphere of state activity required the systematic and regular collection of social statistics – or quantitative data on various aspects of the population and economy.
The practice of the collection of social statistics by the state is in itself much older, but it acquired its modern form towards the end of the eighteenth century.
The American census of 1790 was probably the first modern census, and the practice was soon taken up in Europe as well in the early 1800s.
In India, censuses began to be conducted by the British Indian government between 1867-72 and regular ten yearly (or decennial) censuses have been conducted since 1881.
Independent India continued the practice, and seven decennial censuses have been conducted since 1951, the most recent being in 2011.
The Indian census is the largest such exercise in the world (since China, which has a slightly larger population, does not conduct regular censuses).
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2: The Demographic Structure Of The Indian Society
1. Explain the basic argument of the theory of the demographic transition. Why is the transition period associated with a ‘population explosion?
Ans. The theory of demographic transition suggests that population growth in linked to overall levels of economic development and that every society follows a typical pattern of development-related population growth.
There are three basic phases of population growth:
Stage I: Primitive Stage [Underdeveloped countries]
•Low population growth in a society that is underdeveloped and technologically backward.
•In such societies like Africa birth rate is high since people are unaware of the advantages of having small families, they are not educated.
•Death rate is also high since health and medical facilities are not available, therefore population is low.
Stage II: [Developing countries]. The birth rate and death rate rank very high, the net growth rate remains low.
The birth rate is high as in this society people live in a patriarchal society in which men decide how many children must be born and a male child is preferred. People are illiterate and ignorant.
The death rate is also high since health and medical facilities are not available.
Stage III: [Developed countries]. The birth rate is low because people are educated and aware and use contraceptives and birth control is popularised. The death rate is also low because of the availability of health and medical facilities, therefore the population is low.
Transitional Stage: The stage between backwardness and skilled people]: In this stage growth rate of the population is very high whereas death rates are brought down due to better medical facilities, nutrition, and better medical and technological advancement therefore this transition period is associated with a population explosion.
2. Why did Malthus believe that catastrophic events like famines and epidemics that cause mass deaths were inevitable?
Ans. English political economist Thomas Robert Malthus argued that the human population tends to grow at a much faster rate than the rate at which the means of human subsistence (land, agriculture) can grow.
He said population rises in geometric progression whereas agricultural production can only grow in Arithmetic progression.
Malthus believed that positive checks to population growth in the form of famines and diseases were inevitable. These are nature’s way of dealing with the balance between food supply and increasing population.
According to him, these natural checks are extremely painful and difficult. Although it helps to achieve a balance between population and subsistence by increasing the death rate.
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NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Chapter 2 The Demographic Structure Of The Indian Society With Answer PDF Free Download