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Chapter 7: Mass Media And Communications
The first modern mass media institution began with the development of the printing press.
Although the history of print in certain societies dates back many centuries, the first attempts at printing books using modern technologies began in Europe. This technique was first developed by Johann Gutenberg in Initial attempts at printing were restricted to religious books.
With the Industrial Revolution, the print industry also grew. The first products of the press were restricted to an audience of literate elites.
It was only in the mid-19th century, with further development in technologies, transportation and literacy that newspapers began to reach out to a mass audience.
People living in different corners of the country found themselves reading or hearing the same news.
It has been suggested that this was in many ways responsible for people across a country to feel connected and develop a sense of belonging or ‘we feeling’.
The well-known scholar Benedict Anderson has thus argued that this helped the growth of nationalism, the feeling that people who did not even know of each other’s existence felt like members of a family.
It gave people who would never meet each other a sense of togetherness. Anderson thus suggested that we could think of the nation as an ‘imagined community.
You will recall how 19th-century social reformers often wrote and debated in newspapers and journals.
The growth of Indian nationalism was closely linked to its struggle against colonialism. It emerged in the wake of the institutional changes brought about by British rule in India.
Anti-colonial public opinion was nurtured and channelized by the nationalist press, which was vocal in its opposition to the oppressive measures of the colonial state.
This led the colonial government to clamp down on the nationalist press and impose censorship, for instance during the Ilbert Bill agitation in 1883.
Association with the national movement led some of the nationalist newspapers like Kesari (Marathi), Mathrubhumi (Malayalam), and Amrita Bazar Patrika (English) to suffer the displeasure of the colonial state.
But that did not prevent them from advocating the nationalist cause and demanding an end to colonial rule.
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Mass Media And Communications
1.Trace out the changes that have been occurring in the newspaper industry? What is your opinion on these changes?
Ans. It is often believed that with the growth of Television and the internet the print media would be sidelined. However, in India we have seen the circulation of newspapers grow.
New technologies have helped boost the production and circulation of newspapers. A large number of glossy magazines have also made their entry into the market.
The reasons for the growth in Indian newspapers are many.
1.There is a rise in the number of literate people who are migrating to cities. The Hindi daily ‘Hindustan’ in 2003 printed 64,000 copies of their Delhi edition, which jumped drastically in 2005, to 425,000.
The reason was that of Delhi’s population of one crore and fprty seven lakh, 52% had come from the Hindi belt of the two states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Of this, 47% have come from a rural background and 60% of them were less than 40 years of age.
2. The need of the readers in the small towns and villages are different from that of the cities and the Indian language newspapers cater to those needs. Dominant Indian language newspapers such as Malayala Manorama and the Eenadu launched the concept of local news in a significant manner by introducing district and whenever necessary, block editions.
Dina Thanthi-, another leading Tamil newspaper, had always used simplified and colloquial language.
3. The Indian language newspapers have adopted advanced printing technologies and also attempted supplements, pull-outs, and literary and nice booklets.
4. Marketing strategies have also marked the Dainik Bhaskar group’s growth as they carry out consumer contact programs, door- to-door surveys, and research. Thus, modem mass media has to have a formal structural organization.
•While English newspapers, often called National Dailies’, circulate across regions, vernacular newspapers have vastly increased their circulation in the states and the mral interland.
In order to compete with the electronic media, newspapers, especially English language newspapers have on the one hand reduced prices and on the other hand, brought out editions from multiple centers.
•Change in the role of newspaper production-role of technology.
•Many feared that the rise in electronic media would lead to a decline in the circulation of print media. This has not happened. Indeed it has expanded.
This process has often involved cuts in prices and increasing dependence on the sponsors of advertisements who in turn have a larger say in the content of newspapers.
•Newspapers have become a consumer product and as long as numbers are big, everything is up for sale.
2.Is radio as a medium of mass communication dying out? Discuss the potential that FM stations have in post-liberalization India?
Ans. 1. With the advent of TV, the internet, and other audio-visual forms of entertainment, people started believing that radio will be an outdated form of mass communication but this thinking proved wrong.
2.In 2000, AIR’s programs could be heard in two-thirds of Indian households in 24 languages and 146 dialects, over some 120 million radio sets. The advent of privately owned FM radio stations in 2002 provided a boost to entertainment over radio.
3.In order to attract audiences, these privately run radio stations sought to provide entertainment to its listeners.
4.As privately rim FM channels are not permitted to broadcast any political news bulletins, many of these channels specialize in ‘particular kinds’ of popular music to retain their audiences. One such FM channel claims that it broadcasts ‘All hits all day.
5. Most FM channels that are popular among young urban professionals and students often belong to media conglomerates. Like ‘Radio Mirchi’ belongs to the Times of India group, Red FM is owned by Living Media and Radio City by the Star Network.
But independent radio stations engaged in public broadcasting like National Public Radio (USA) or BBC (UK) are missing from our broadcasting landscape.
6.The use of radio m movies—In the two films ‘Rang de Basanti’ and ‘Lage Raho Munna Bhai’ the radio is used as an active medium of communication although both the movies are set in the contemporary period.
In ‘Rang de Basanti’ die conscientious, angry college youth, inspired by the Legend of Bhagat Singh assassinates a minister and then captures All India Radio to reach out to die people and disseminate their message.
7. The potential for using FM channels is enormous. Further privatization of radio stations and the emergence of community-owned radio stations would lead to the growth of radio stations. The demand for local news is growing.
The number of homes listening to FM in India has also reinforced the worldwide trend of networks getting replaced by local radio.
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NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Chapter 7 Mass Media And Communications With Answer PDF Free Download