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Introducing Indian Society NCERT Textbook With Solutions Book PDF Free Download
Chapter 1: Introducing Indian Society
In one important sense, Sociology is unlike any other subject that you may have studied. It is a subject in which no one starts from zero – everyone already knows something about society.
Other subjects are learned because they are taught (at school, at home, or elsewhere); but much of our knowledge about society is acquired without explicit teaching.
Because it is such an integral part of the process of growing up, knowledge about society seems to be acquired “naturally” or “automatically”.
No child is expected to already know something about History, Geography, Psychology or Economics when they come to school. But even a six-year-old already knows something about society and social relationships.
It is all the more true then, that, as young eighteen-year-old adults, you know a lot about the society you live in without ever having studied it.
This prior knowledge or familiarity with society is both an advantage and a disadvantage for sociology, the discipline that studies society.
The advantage is that students are generally not afraid of Sociology – they feel that it can’t be a very hard subject to learn. .
The disadvantage is that this prior knowledge can be a problem – in order to learn Sociology, we need to “unlearn” what we already know about society.
In fact, the initial stage of learning Sociology consists mainly of such unlearning. This is necessary because our prior knowledge about society – our common sense – is acquired from a particular viewpoint.
This is the viewpoint of the social group and the social environment that we are socialized into. Our social context shapes our opinions, beliefs, and expectations about society and social relations.
These beliefs are not necessarily wrong, though they can be. The problem is that they are ‘partial’. The word partial is being used here in two different senses – incomplete (the opposite of whole), and biased (the opposite of impartial).
So our ‘unlearnt’ knowledge or common sense usually allows us to see only a part of social reality; moreover, it is liable to be tilted towards the viewpoints and interests of our own social group.
Sociology does not offer a solution to this problem in the form of a perspective that can show us the whole of reality in a completely unbiased way.
Indeed sociologists believe that such an ideal vantage point does not exist. We can only see by standing somewhere; and every ‘somewhere’ offers only a partial view of the world.
What sociology offers is to teach us how to see the world from many vantage points – not just our own, but also that of others unlike ourselves.
Each vantage point provides only a partial view, but by comparing what the world looks like from the eyes of different kinds of people we get some sense of what the whole might look like, and what is hidden from view in each specific standpoint.
What may be of even more interest to you is that sociology can show you what you look like to others; it can teach you how to look at yourself ‘from the outside, so to speak.
This is called ‘self-reflexivity’, or sometimes just reflexivity. This is the ability to reflect upon yourself, to turn back your gaze (which is usually directed outward) back towards yourself. But this self-inspection must be critical – i.e., it should be quick to criticize and slow to praise oneself.
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1: Introducing Indian Society
- What are the main problems of national integration in India?
Ans. The problems of India are linguistic identity, regionalism, demand for separate states and terrorism etc. create hindrances in the way of national integration. Due to these . problems, usually strikes, riots and mutual fights take place, which has posed a severe threat to national unity and integration.
2. Why is sociology a distinct subject in comparison with all other subjects?
Ans. Sociology is a subject with which everyone knows something about society. Other subjects are learned at home, school or elsewhere through instructions but much of our with growth in years as it appears to be acquired naturally or automatically.
3. What are the basic functions of a society?
Ans. Sociologists and social anthropologists have adopted the term function from biological sciences where it has been used for certain organic processes necessary for the maintenance of the organisms. Basic functions necessary for the continuity and survival of any society are :
(i) Recruitment of members (ii) Socialization
(iii) Production and distribution of goods and services and preservation of order.
Ans. A society consists of(i)Males and females, adults and children, various occupational and religious groups, and so on. (ii)The interrelationship between various that of parents and children and between various groups.(iii)Finally, all the parts of the society are put together and system are interrelated and complementary concepts.
Ans. Social maps are provided by our parent’s siblings, relatives, and neighbors. It may be specific and partial. It provides us only with common sense or unlearnt or perceivable knowledge which may or may not be real.
Proper use and application of reflexivity is essential for drawing other kinds of maps. It is a sociological perspective that teaches us the procedure of drawing social maps, wholesome and exclusive.
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NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Chapter 1 Introducing Indian Society With Answer PDF Free Download