English Grammar Noun PDF

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English Grammar Noun PDF


Nouns are naming words. Every language has its own set of nouns and the list is open ended i.e. newer nouns one added to the older ones with the changing times.

Definition of Nouns

A Nouns is the name of a person place or thing. A thing includes a quality (fear) a material (gold), a collection (herd, army), a state (adherence) and an action (cheat, mock, movement)

Noun and Noun Phrase

A noun is often called a’ noun phrase. A noun phrase can be a single-word noun: Teachers love their pupils. (noun phrase: teacher) But a noun phrase is usually longer than a single word because it consists of an adjective or a determiner plus a noun. A good teacher loves his pupils. (noun phrase: a good teacher)

Kinds of Nouns

Nouns can be classified into five kinds: 1. Proper nouns 2. Common nouns 3. Collective nouns 4. Material nouns 5. Abstract nouns

Proper nouns

A proper noun is the name of a particular person or thing, i.e. a name used for an individual person or place, river, or mountain etc.: Mary, Rahul, Godavari, India, Everest

Common nouns

A common noun refers to any and every person or thing of the same kind or class, not to a particular person or thing: cow, dog, girl, boy, man, woman Common nouns Proper nouns girl Latha dog Rover man Aslam

Collective nouns

A collective noun is the name of a collection, group of people, or things of the same kind: class, team, government jury, federation

Material nouns

A material noun is the name of a material, substance, or ingredient things are made of. They can be articles of food or drink as well: iron, copper, steel, gold, coal, silver, rice, wheat, milk, water, tea, sugar Note: A material noun is a type of common noun but a distinction is made between the two.

A common noun is usually a countable noun but a material noun is an uncountable noun. The cow gives us milk. Cow is a common noun (countable), but milk is a material noun (uncountable).

Abstract nouns

An abstract noun is the name of a quality, state, or concept: beauty, sweetness, childhood, love

Note: Concrete nouns are names of material things, i.e. things having a material form, shape or size. Abstract nouns are the names of qualities found in various kinds of objects. Since they have no material form, they cannot be seen or touched.

We can know of them only through our mind: Concrete nouns Abstract nouns sugar weetness book beauty milk hatred Patna fear We can see sugar but cannot see sweetness, so sugar is a concrete noun and sweetness an abstract noun. In short, concrete nouns refer to physical properties and abstract nouns to mental roperties.

Nouns: Countability Nouns are of two kinds from the viewpoint of countability: a) Countable nouns b) Uncountable nouns

Cou table nouns

Nouns that can be counted are called countable nouns: a book one book two books an egg one egg two eggs Generally a noun used in answer to the question how many? is a countable noun: How many films did you watch? I watched six films. How many flights are there from here to Delhi? There are only two flights. Note: Common nouns and collective nouns are by and large countable.

Uncountable nouns

Nouns that cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns: milk, water, ink, sugar, butter (not, a milk, one water, two sugar) A noun used in answer to the question how much? is an uncountable noun.

When we want to refer to the quantity of these items we use values of measurement which are countable: How much milk do you need? We need a litre of milk. Note: a) Material nouns and abstract nouns are uncountable.

So are proper nouns, though they can be used as countable nouns in special situations: There are two Indias, the rural and the urban. b) Certain nouns can be used both as countable and uncountable depending on the context. Uncountable Countable I prefer chicken to fish. These chickens are lovely. Petrol catches fire easily. Shall we make a fire out here?

Nouns: Gender Gender is of four kinds: Masculine (denotes male) Feminine (denotes female) Common (denotes both male and female) Neuter (denotes neither male nor female) Masculine Feminine Common Neuter boy girl student gold man woman teacher rice brother sister doctor flower uncle aunt child river bull cow diplomat table Note:

The words masculine and feminine can be used as adjectives to describe the looks or qualities of human beings. In this sense masculine means: having the characterstics of a man, so it can be used of a woman or girl as well.

The lady standing in the centre has masculine looks. Similarly with feminine. Notice that in this sense masculine/feminine indicates characteristics or attributes, not sex.

Masculine and feminine forms

The feminine of nouns is formed in two ways: i) by adding ess to the masculine form ii) by adding she/girl/woman to the masculine form i) By adding ess to the masculine form actor baron count/earl duke god heir host hunter Actress Baroness Countess Duchess Goddess heiress hostess huntress lion master murderer priest prince shepherd tiger waiter lioness mistress murderess priestess princess shepherdess tigress waitress Note: a) English has only a small number of feminine forms (noun + ess).

Professional activities are often referred to in the common gender. The feminine forms authoress, poetess, directress, inspectress are no longer in use. She is the director of this institute. (not, directress) She is an inspector of police. (not, inspectress) b)

The feminine form of hero is heroine. ii) By adding she/girl/woman he-goat she-goat boy-friend girl-friend student woman student businessman businesswoman policeman policewoman sportsman sportswoman salesman saleswoman statesman stateswoman But in many cases, the feminine form is not derived from the masculine form.

In the examples listed below, the feminine form is a totally new word, not related to the masculine form phonetically.

bachelor – maid/spinster gander – goose boar – sow gentleman – lady boy – girl hart – roe brother – sister horse – mare buck – doe husband – wife bull/ox – cow lord – lady bullock – heifer man – woman cock – hen nephew – neice colt – fi lIy sir – madam dog – bitch stag – hind drake – duck uncle – aunt drone – bee wizard – witch father – mother fox – vixen friar/monk – nun mon/dual – gender

Language English
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PDF Size1 MB

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