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English Is Easy Book By Chetananand Singh PDF Free Download
BSC Publication English is Easy
“What’s in a name? that which we call a rose, By any other name would smell as sweet”
Poor Juliet! She appears to be totally unaware of the rules of grammar when she makes the above statement. There is nothing wrong in the lines from Shakespeare quoted above.
I only want you to pay attention to name. A noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.
Since nouns and their uses have to be carefully understood, there is much in a name. I have begun with noun because it is usually considered as the first of the eight parts of speech.
WHAT are PARTS OF SPEECH? Words are divided into different kinds or classes according to their use, that is, according to the work they do in a sentence. These kinds or classes are known as Parts of Speech.
They are eight in number: 1. Noun, 2. Pronoun, 3. Verb, 4. Adjective, 5. Adverb, 6. Preposition 7. Conjunction, 8. Interjection. So, if you know how to handle these, grammar does not become a problem. Let us then start with noun.
Kinds of noun
A common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind. A proper noun is the name of a particular person or place.
Let us take an example. Mr. Abhay Rastogi has enrolled himself for learning English. Mr. Neeraj Yadav has also enrolled himself for English. What is common between the two? Both of them are students of English.
More generally, we can conclude that both of them are students. Obviously, Mr. Abhay Rastogi and Mr. Neeraj Yadav are proper nouns while student is a common noun.
Rule: Proper nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning. Incorrect: The capital of bihar is patna.
Correct: The capital of Bihar is Patna.
Rule: Proper nouns are sometimes used as common nouns.
Incorrect: Neelesh is Gandhiji of our class.
Here Gandhiji does not mean Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation. The word here stands for the possessor of the qualities that Gandhiji is most known for- truth and non-violence.
Neelesh stands out among his classmates because he practises truth and non-violence.
Gandhiji here thus means ‘the man acting on the principles of truth and non-violence.’ This the should be visible in our original sentence. Gandhiji is being used as a common noun.
Correct: Neelesh is the Gandhiji of our class. Common nouns include collective nouns, abstract nouns and material nouns. A collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things. Ex: army. committee, crowd, fleet, flock, herd, jury, mob, parliament, team.
Rule: A collective noun usually takes a singular verb and is substituted by a singular pronoun.
Incorrect: The jury have given their decision. The error being made here is that we think a jury consists of several judges and hence the plural form.
It is to be noted, however, that we are talking of jury as a whole, which is one body. So, Correct: The jury has given its decision. However, there are cases when the members of a group do not behave as a whole but take different directions.
Rule: A collective noun takes a plural verb and is substituted by a plural pronoun when the individuals of which it is composed are thought of Incorrect: The jury was divided in its opinions.
Look at the word divided in the above sentence. It is clear that the members of the jury are not behaving as a whole.
One of the judges may think that Mr. A has committed the murder. The other may think that Mr. A is innocent. A third may think that Mr. A has only been an accomplice. And so on.
You can clearly see that the opinions (also plural) vary. So,
Correct: The jury were divided in their opinions. An abstract noun is usually the name of a quality, action or state considered apart from the object (which is usually a common noun and often qualified by an adjective) to which it belongs. Ex: strength, innocence, gluttony, love, fear, birth, Inertia.
HOW are ABSTRACT NOUNS FORMED?
(1) From adjectives: atrocious (wicked) belligerent (engaged in fighting) Reprise Inmoy atrocity chaste (pure, virtuous) degenerate (having lost the desirable qualities) exempt (free from an obligation or liability) fragrant (sweet-smelling) glum (dejected, sullen) hereditable (that can be inherited)
(2) From verbs:
imitate (be like) judge (decide) know live belligerence chastity degeneration exemption fragrance glumness
hereditability imitation judgement knowledge life
(3) From common nouns:
queen republican (person advocating or supporting republican government) scholar (teamed person) tomfool (extremely foolish) queenship republicanism scholarship tomfoolery vagrant (person without settled home or regular work) vagrancy woman zealot (fanatic) won. “nhood zealotry
A material noun is the name of a material (matter from which thing is made). Rule: A material noun does not take an article (a, an, the) before it Incorrect: The cotton is a cash crop.Being used to statements like “The elephant is an animal’, we tend to make the above mistake.
But applying the above rule to cotton (a material noun), we realise our mistake. So,Correct: Cotton is a cash crop.
Utter the word sex and the students become eager to know what you are going to talk about. Disappointment follows when the grammarian tells the students that he (or maybe she, you have to be very careful) is to discuss gender. Nonetheless, it pays to know your grammar properly.
So, let us proceed There was a man and a woman. Both of them became teachers. They taught students who were either male (called boys) or female (called girls). But they also had to be constantly in touch with books, which were neither male nor female.
Now, a noun that denotes a male animal is said to be of the masculine gender. Ex: man (now don’t say man is not an animal!), boy. A noun that denotes a female animal is said to be of the feminine gender. Ex: woman, girl.
A noun that denotes either a male or a female is said to be of the common gender.
Ex: teacher, studenA noun that denotes a thing without life, neither male nor female, is said to be of the neuter gender. Ex: book.Rule: Collective nouns, even when they denote living beings, are considered of the neuter gender. Incorrect: Debi Prasad Ghosh had a herd of cows. He kept a herdsman to look after her.
Now what did the herdsman look after? Herd, of course. And the herd consists of cows (females), not bulls (males). So you think herd is a feminine noun. But this is not correct.
Being a collective noun, it is neither male nor female. So, apply neuter gender.
Correct: Debi Prasad Ghosh had a herd of cows. He kept a herdsman to look after it.
Rule: Young children and the lower animals are also referred to as of the nester gender
Incorrect: The baby loves his toys. Perhaps because it hardly matters to a baby whether it is treated as a male or a female, grammarians prefer to do away with sex in its case. So, Correct: The baby loves its toys
Incorrect: The mouse lost his tail when the cat pounced on him. I don’t think the above sentence has been written after verifying the mouse’s sex.
We are often uncertain regarding the sex of lower animals. The mouse here may be a male or a female. So, the English language prefers the easy way out: treat it as of the neuter gender. Correct: The mouse lost its tail when the cat pounced on it.
Rule: When objects without life are personified, they are considered of the masculine gender if the object is remarkable for strength and violence. Ex: Sun, Summer, Winter, Time, Death etc
- the feminine gender if the object is remarkable for beauty. gentleness and gracefulness. Ex: Earth, Moon, Spring, Nature, Mercy etc.
- Incorrect: The Sun came from behind the clouds and with her brilliance tore the veil of darkness.
Convention does not see brilliance as a womanly quality, but a manly one. So, Correct: The Sun… with his brilliance…..
Incorrect: Nature offers his lap to him that seeks it. The offering of a lap is usually the mother’s role. Hence, Nature here should be treated as a feminine noun
- Correct: Nature offers her lap to him that seeks it.
- Incorrect: The earth goes round the sun in 3654 days. Can you calculate her speed?
The error being made here is that personification is being brought where it does not exist.
- In the above statement the earth is being treated as a body (a thing), not a person. The scientist here is not concerned with the womanly qualities of the planet. So, neuter gender should be applied.
Correct: The earth… Can you calculate its speed?
Ask any child if it knows how to count and you get the answer: 1, 2, 3, 4, English divides the number into only two groups: one and more than one. So, for the time being, you may heave a sigh of relief.
A noun that denotes one person or Laing is said to be in the singular number. Ex: fan stamp, box,man,horse
A noun that denotes more than one person or thing is said to be in the plural number. Ex: fans, stamps, boxes, mo
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English is Easy Book By Chetananand Singh PDF Free Download