Research Methodology Book PDF

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Research Methodology Book

The chart indicates that the research process consists of several closely related activities, shown in I through VII. But such activities tend to overlap rather than follow strictly.

prescribed order. Sometimes, the first move determines the nature of the last move to be taken. Serious difficulties occur if subsequent processes are not taken into account in the early stages.

A situation may arise which may even prevent the completion of the study. One must remember that the various steps involved in the research process are not mutually exclusive; nor are they separate and Specific. They do not necessarily follow each other in any specific order and the researcher has to continuously anticipate subsequent needs at each stage of the research process.

step. However, the following order relating to the various steps provides a useful procedural guideline regarding the research process: (1) formulation of the research problem; (2) comprehensive literature survey; (3) developing a hypothesis; (4) preparing the research design; (5) determination of sample design; (6) collecting data; (7) execution of the project; (8) analysis of the data; (9) hypothesis testing; (10) Generalization and interpretation, and (11) Preparation of reports or presentation of results, i.e., formal writing of findings.

A brief description of the steps mentioned above would be helpful. 1. Formulation of Research Problem: Research problems are of two types, namely, those which are concerned with the states of nature and those which are concerned with the relationship between variables.

At the outset, the researcher must select the problem he wants to study, that is, he must decide the general area of interest or aspect of the subject matter about which he wants to inquire.

in the beginning, The problem may be stated in broad general terms and then ambiguities, if any, relating to the problem may be resolved.

Again, the feasibility of a particular solution must be considered before a working formulation of the problem can be established. Thus, the formulation of a general topic into a specific research problem is the first step in scientific inquiry. Formulating a research problem basically involves two steps, namely, understanding the problem thoroughly, and formulating it.

Equal in meaningful terms from an analytical point of view.

The best way to understand the problem is to discuss it with your colleagues or people who have some expertise in the matter.

A researcher in an educational institution can look for Take the help of a guide who is usually an experienced person with several research problems in mind.

Often, the guide lays out the problem in general terms and it is up to the researcher to narrow it down.

Formulate and write the problem in operational terms. In private business entities or government organizations, the problem is usually identified by administrative agencies.

The researcher can discuss how the problem originally arose and what ideas are involved in its possible solutions.
The researcher should at the same time examine all the available literature in order to become familiar with the selected problem.

He can review two types of literature – conceptual literature dealing with concepts and theories, and empirical literature consisting of previously conducted studies that are similar to the proposed one.

The basic outcome of this review will be knowledge of what data and other materials are available for operational purposes which will enable the researcher to specify his research problem in a meaningful context.

The researcher then restates the problem in analytical or operational terms, that is, puts the problem in as specific terms as possible. this task Formulation or definition of a research problem is the most important step in the entire research process.

The problem to be investigated should be clearly defined, this will help in separating relevant data from irrelevant data. However, care should be taken to verify the fairness and validity of the background facts relating to the issue. Professor W.A. Niswanger is right

Language English
No. of Pages418
PDF Size2 MB

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