‘Importance of Public Policy’ PDF Quick download link is given at the bottom of this article. You can see the PDF demo, size of the PDF, page numbers, and direct download Free PDF of ‘Types of Public Policy’ using the download button.
Public Policy Notes For Students PDF Free Download
What is Public Policy and Types of Public Policy
Public policies are as old as governments. Whatever the form, oligarchy, monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny, or democracy, etc., – whenever and wherever governments have existed, public policies have been formulated and implemented.
To cope with the varied.problems and demands of the people the government has to make many policies, these policies are called public policies.
This Unit tries to explain the meaning and types of public policy. It will highlight the different components of a policy and distinguish between policy, decision and goal.
An attempt will be made to bring out the relationship between politics and policy, and importance and characteristics of public policy will also be discussed Before discussing the meaning of public policy, it would be better if we are clear about the relationship between public policy and politics. Policy making process is a part of politics and political action.
According to Gabriel Almond, political system is a set of interactions having structures, each of which performs its functions in order to keep it like an on-going concern, it is a set of processes that routinely converts inputs into outputs.
Almond classifies illputs of political system into generic functional categories like politica! socialisation and recruitment, interest aggregation, interest articulation and political communication.
Output activities are those which are carried on by a political system in response to demands or stresses placed upon the system in the form of inputs.
Outputs can take the form of governmental policies, programmes, decisions etc. Another model on politics-policy relationship is the Feedback or the ‘Black Box Model’ coined by David Easton.
According to this model the remaining demands which have not been included in the decisions and policies will again be fed back through the same process for the purpose of its conversion into decisions.
These two models establish clear19 the relationship between politics and policies in a political system
Meaning Of Public Policy
There are various studies about public policy and many scholars have attempted to define public policy from different angles.
Before explaining the meaning of public policy, let us first go through some of its definitions. Robert EyeStone terms public policy as “the relationship of government unit to its environment.
Thomas R. Dye says that “public policy is whatever government chooses to do or not to do” Richard Rose says that “public policy is not a decision, it is a course or pattern of activity.
In Carl J. Friedrich’s opinion public policy is a proposed course o: action of a person, group or government within a given environment providing opportunities and obstacles which the policy was proposed to utilise and overlcome in an effort to reach a goal realize an objective or purpose.
From these definitions, it is clear that publi: policies are governmental decisions, and are actually the result of activities which the government undertakes in pursuance of certain goals and objectives.
It can also be said that public policy formulation and implementation involves a well planned pattern or course of activity.
It requires a thoroughly close knit relation and interaction between the important governmental agencies viz., the political executive, legislature, bureaucracy and judiciary.
The following points will make the nature of public policy more clear in your minds:
1) Public Policies are goal oriented. Public policies are formulated and implemented in order to attain the objectives which the government has in view for the ultimate benefit of the masses in general. These policies clearly spell out the programmes of government.
2) Public policy is the outcome of the government’s collective actions. It means that it is a pattern or course of activity or’ the governmental officials and actors in a collective sense than being termzBd as their discrete and segregated decisions.
3) Public policy is what the government actually decides or chooses to do. It is the relationship of the government units to the specific field of political environment in a given administrative system. It can take a variety of forms like law, ordinances, court decisions, executive orders, decisions etc.
4) Public policy is positive in the sense that it depicts the concern of the government ‘and involves its action to a particular droblem on which the policy is made.
It has the sanction of law and authority behind it. Negatively, it involves a decisions by the governmental officials regarding not taking any action on a particular issue.
|No. of Pages||11|
|PDF Size||0.6 MB|
What is Public Policy Book PDF Free Download