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The principal parts of a transformer and their functions are:
- The core makes a path for the magnetic flux.
- The primary coil receives energy from the ac source.
- The secondary coil receives energy from the primary winding and delivers it to the load.
- The enclosure protects the transformer from dirt, moisture, and mechanical damage.
- The composition of a transformer core depends on voltage, current, and frequency. Commonly used core materials are air, soft iron, and steel. Each of these materials is suitable for certain applications. Generally, air-core transformers are used when the voltage source has a high frequency (above 20kHz). Iron-core transformers are usually used when the source frequency is low (below 20 kHz).
- A soft-iron-core transformer is very useful where the transformer must be physically small, yet efficient. The iron-core transformer provides better power transfer than the air-core transformer. A transformer whose core is constructed of laminated sheets of steel dissipates heat readily; thus it provides for the efficient transfer of power.
- The majority of transformers contain laminated-steel cores. These steel laminations are insulated with a nonconducting material, such as varnish, and then formed into a core. It takes about 40 laminations to make a core 2 cm thick. The purpose of the laminations is to reduce losses which will be discussed later in this chapter.
- The most efficient transformer core is one that offers the best path for the most lines of flux with the least loss in magnetic and electrical energy.
Applications of Transformers
Transformers have many applications in power transmission and electronics:
- They may be used to minimize energy losses due to voltage drops in transmitting electricity over long distances.
- They match loads with internal resistance so that there is maximum power transfer.
- They couple signals between electronic stages.
Frequently Asked Questions on Transformer
Q1. What is the working principle of the transformer?
The transformer works on the principle of mutual induction.
Q2. List the three types of transformers based on voltage level.
Based on the voltage level, the transformer is of three types. They are
Q3. What are the main parts of a transformer?
Q4 .When do transformers burn and explode?
Transformers burn and explode when lightning strikes, and during overloading, corrosion, power surges, etc.
Q5. What is a transformer?
A transformer is a device used for stepping up or stepping down AC voltages.
Q6.What is a step-up transformer?
A step-up transformer is one for which the output voltage is greater than the input voltage.
Q7 .What is a step-down transformer?
A step-down transformer is one for which the output voltage is less than the input voltage.
Q8. Define the turns ratio of the transformer.
The turns ratio of a transformer is the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary to that of the primary.
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