# Pencil Drawing Techniques PDF

### Pencil Drawing Techniques

One of the most difficult problems of drawing is creating a three-dimensional form on a flat piece of paper.

The best demonstration of producing three dimensions is with a drawing of a cube that has height, width, and depth.

If there is a flat overall light on a cube, it is difficult to see the light side, the middle tone side, and the shadow side.

When a single light is directed on the cube you will be able to see the height, width, and depth.

Each surface of the cube will have a value, and the difference between these values will reflect the amount of light.

For example, if the lightest side of the cube is the 9th value and the shadow side is the 1st value, there is a stronger light effect than if the difference were a 7th value for the light and a 5th value for the shadow

You can create the values you’ll use to produce the form with the same methods that were used to make the value charts.

With a 2H pencil (A). indicate the light value, the middle value, and the dark value.

It is difficult to achieve a strong light effect since the darkest tone you can obtain with a 2H pencil is the 6th value.

When you use an HB pencil (B) you can achieve a much stronger light on the cube, since the HB pencil can make a 4th or 5th value.

However, by reducing the pressure on the pencil you can create more texture in the middle tone side.

A stronger light effect is obtained with a 2B pencil (C) because the shadow side now becomes the 3rd value.

Since the pencils are softer, the texture in the paper becomes more noticeable.

Creating Values

The placemen! of values is of prime importance in the composition of a picture.

It is possible to create all the values in a drawing by using just one pencil.

To do this, you must use a pencil that will make a dark value.

Try using a 2B. By varying the pressure on the paper with a 2B pencil, you can render all values between white and black.

Another way of creating values is by using different grade pencils for different values.

You can make all the values between white and black with seven pencils as follows:

Before you start any drawing, make a chart of all ten values using the pencils suggested here.

Make each square 1-inch (2.5 cm) and create the tones with vertical lines, horizontal lines, and cross-hatching.

Do each value as carefully and accurately as you can (see above).

There are two other exercises you should do in order to understand values and how to achieve them:

1. Using the seven pencils of grades 6B, 4B, 2B, HB, 2H, 4H, and 6H, make a chart of a graded tone from value 0 (black) to 10 (while).

Be sure as you change pencils that there is a gradual blending of the tones.

Notice how you can create a very smooth blending Irom one value to the next by simply changing the pencils.

2. The second exercise is the same graded value chart you did (above) with seven pencils, but now you will use only one pencil that will make a dark enough tone to create a solid black.

With a 4B pencil you are able to create all the values from 0 to 9 by changing the pressure.

When you grade the values with one pencil, the texture of the paper becomes an important element, since with less pressure the roughness of the paper becomes more apparent (opposite page, bottom)

This chart was created by using the same pencils as above for the values; however, the strokes were drawn on a slant.

Use different directions for the strokes, but keep the values the same.