Painted Wood PDF History and Conservation In English

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Among the vast array of tree species, the most familiar and most used woods are obtained from trees that we know as hardwoods and softwoods.

The angiosperms are grouped into two subclasses, the monocotyledons (which includes palms, rattans, bamboo, etc.) and the dicotyledons, the source of the woods we know as hardwoods.

The woods we call softwoods are from trees of the gymnosperms, principally in the order Coniferales; thus these trees are also known as conifers.

The traditional terms hardwood and softwood have no accurate reference to the relative hardness and softness of the wood, and should therefore be interpreted simply as designations for the two major botanical groups they represent.

Although tree stems of both hardwoods and softwoods have many similar characteristics of form and gross features, there are categorical differences of anatomical detail between the two groups of woods.

The tree has a main supporting stem or trunk, the portion most commonly used for lumber and veneer. When a cylindrical log is removed from the stem by crosscutting, the exposed ends of the log reveal the outer layer of bark.

Interior to the bark, and comprising the bulk of the stem, is the wood, characterized by its many growth rings arranged concentrically around the central pith.

Between the bark and the wood is a microscopically thin layer of living tissue, the cambium, whose cells divide during the growing season to produce new wood cells to the inside, bark to the outside Wood cells and tissues.

The cell is the basic structural unit of plant material, and, accordingly. wood tissue is the physical structure of countless cells. Wood cells are typically elongated, although the proportions of length to diameter vary

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