Indian Geography Book PDF In English

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Indian Geography Book in English

Indian Geography PDF

About India

India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of area. It lies on the Indian Plate, which is the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate.

The Indian subcontinent is surrounded by three different water bodies and is easily recognisable on the world map.


The Indian mainland extends between 8°4′ North and 37°6′ North latitudes and from 68°7′ East and 97°25′ East longitudes.

Thus, the latitudinal and the North-south extent is 3214 km and East-west extentis 2933 km. India accounts 2.42% of the total world land area India lies entirely in the northern hemisphere, and eastern hemisphere.

The Tropic of Cancer (23°30′ North) passes through the centre of the country. It divides the country into almost two equal parts Northward of this latitude is North India and South of it is known as South India.

Similarly 82°30′ East longitude passes almost from the middle of the country.

It is known as Standard Meridian of India.

India is the largest country in terms of area and population in South-Asia. It is surrounded by the ocean. India is strategically located in the Indian Ocean.

It commands sea routes between Europe and Africa, SouthEast Asia, far East Asia and Oceania.

It is because of this that India shares good trade relation between many countries since ancient times Size India’s total area accounts for about 2.4% of the total geographical area of the world.

Thus, it is the 7th largest country in the world, by its


India has a land boundary of about 15,200 km.

The total length of the coastline of the mainland is 7,516.6 km including Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep. ·

India is bounded by the mountains in the northwest, north and northeast.

South of about 22° north latitude, it begins to taper and extends towards the Indian Ocean, dividing it into two seas, the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on its east.

Time along the Standard Meridian of India (82°30’E) passing through Mirzapur (in Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time for India.

India and the World

The Indian landmass has a central location between the East and West Asia.

India is a southward extension of the Asian continent.

The trans-Indian Ocean routes connect the countries of Europe in the West and the countries of East Asia.

No other country has as long a coastline on the Indian Ocean as India has.

India’s contacts with the World have continued through the ages.

The spices, muslin and other merchandise were taken from India to different countries.

On the other hand, the influence of Greek sculpture, and the architectural styles of domes and minarets from West Asia can be seen in different parts of India.

India’s Neighbours

India has 29 states and seven Union Territories. India shares its land boundaries with: · Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest · China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north.

Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east Physical Features of India.

Physiography of an area is the outcome of structure, process and the stage of development.

The land of India exhibits great physical variations.

Indian landmass was the part of great Pangaea (entire landmass) which broke into two parts in the Carboniferous Period due to the force of gravity and buoyancy.

The northern and southern parts were subsequently called as Laurasia and Gondwanaland, respectively, leaving Tethys Sea in the middle. ·

Based on these macro variations, India can be divided into the following physiographic divisions: (1) The Northern and North-eastern Mountains (2) The Northern Plain (3) The Peninsular Plateau (4) The Indian Desert (5) The Coastal Plains (6) The Islands

Geologically, The Himalayan mountains represent a very youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys and fast-moving rivers.

The Himalayas and the Northern Plains are the most recent landforms. The Peninsular Plateau constitutes one of the ancient landmasses and most stable land blocks on the earth’s surface.

The Northern Plains are formed of alluvial deposits and the Peninsular Plateau is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks with gently rising hills and wide valleys. ·

Gondwanaland further broke up into the peninsular India, Madagascar, Australia, Antarctica etc in the Jurassic Period.

Peninsular part of India is a part of Gondwanaland, formed from igneous rocks of Archean era which were transformed into Gneiss and Schist.

Northern Mountain Ranges ·

The Himalayas stretching over the northern borders of India are geologically young and structurally fold mountain ranges of the world.

The formation of Himalayas took place due to the collision of the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. ·

Himalayas extending from the Indus Gorge in the west Brahmaputra Gorge in the east terminates suddenly taking sharp southward bend.

These bends are called Syntaxial bends of the Himalayas. Trans-Himalayas are the northern parts of the Great Himalayas.

These ranges have been formed from sedimentary rocks. Antecedent rivers like Sutlej, Indus, Brahmaputra or Tsangpo originate from this region.

It is separated in the north from Great Himalayas by the Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) or Kailash mountain ranges are categorized under this Himalayas.

Karakoram ranges are known as the backbone of the Asia. The highest mountain peak of India, K² or Godwin Austen is located in this range.

Karakoram ranges meet the Pamir knot in the west whereas it is extended in the southeast as Kailash range.

In the south of this range, Ladakh range acts as a water divide between Indus River and its tributary Shyok River.

Greater Himalayas · These are also known as Inner Himalayas or Himadri. This is the highest range of Himalayas.

The average height of this range is 6,100 m. It contains all the major ranges of the Himalayas. It ranges 120 km to 190 km. ·

Great Himalayan range, also known as the Central Axial range, extends from the gorge of Indus River to the bend of Brahmaputra river in Arunachal Pradesh.

Almost all the lofty peaks of the world are located in this range. Mt Everest, Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat, Nanda Devi, Kamet and Namcha Barwa are its important range. Middle or the lesser Himalayas.

These are also known as Himachal. Greater Himalayas is separated from the Middle Himalayas by the Main Central Thrust. Its breadth is 60-80 km and average height is 3,000-4,500m.

Some peaks in this range are more than 5,000 m high and the river flow through deep gorges upto 1,000 m.

Language English
No. of Pages266
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