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Change And Development In Rural Society NCERT Textbook With Solutions Book PDF Free Download
Chapter 4: Change And Development In Rural Society
Agricultural land is the single most important resource and form of property in rural society. But it is not equally distributed among people living in a particular village or region.
Nor does everyone have access to land. In fact, the distribution of landholdings in most regions is highly unequal among households.
In some parts of India, the majority of rural households own at least some land – usually very small plots.
In other areas, as much as 40 to 50 percent of families do not own any land at all. This means that they are dependent on agricultural labor or other kinds of work for their livelihoods.
This of course means that a few families are well-to-do. The majority live just above or below the poverty line.
In most regions of India, women are usually excluded from ownership of land, because of the prevailing patrilineal kinship system and mode of inheritance. By law, women are supposed to have an equal share of family property.
In reality they only have limited rights and some access to land only as part of a household headed by a man.
The term agrarian structure is often used to refer to the structure or distribution of landholding. Because agricultural land is the most important productive resource in rural areas, access to land shapes the rural class structure.
Access to land largely determines what role one plays in the process of agricultural production.
Medium and large landowners are usually able to earn sufficient or even large incomes from cultivation (although this depends on agricultural prices, which can fluctuate greatly, as well as other factors such as the monsoon).
But agricultural laborers are more often than not paid below the statutory minimum wage and earn very little. Their incomes are low.
Their employment is insecure. Most agricultural laborers are daily-wage workers. And do not have work for many days of the year.
This is known as underemployment. Similarly, tenants (cultivators who lease their land from landowners) have lower incomes than owner-cultivators.
Because they have to pay a substantial rent to the landowner – often as much as 50 to 75 percent of the income from the crop.
An agrarian society, therefore, can be understood in terms of its class structure. But we must also remember the structure that it is through the caste system. In rural areas, there is a complex relationship between caste and class.
This relationship is not always straightforward. We might expect that the higher castes have more land and higher incomes.
And that there is a correspondence between caste and class as one moves down the hierarchy.
In many areas this is broadly true but not exactly. For instance, in most areas, the highest caste, the Brahmins, are not major landowners, and so they fall outside the agrarian structure although they are a part of rural society
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 Change And Development In Rural Society
1.Read the passage given and answer the questions:
The harsh working conditions suffered by laboureres in Aghanbigha were an outcome of the combined effect ofthe economic power of the maliks as a class and their overwhelming power as members of a dominant caste. A significant aspect of the social power of the maliks was their ability to secure the intervention of various arms of the state to advance their interests. Thus, political factors decissively contributed to widening the gulf between the dominant class and the underclass.
(i)Why do you think the maliks were able to use the power of the state to advance their own interests?
(ii) Why did laborers have harsh working conditions?
Ans. (i) (a) The maliks being the dominant caste was very powerful politically, economically, and socially.
(b)Because of power they were able to use the power of the state for their vested interests.
(c)They were successfully able to secure the intervention of various arms of the state for their own benefit.
(ii)The labor have been working under harsh conditions because being dalits, they were not allowed to own land and were compelled to work in the lands of dominant caste people as a labourer.
2. What measures do you think the government has taken, or should take, to protect the rights of landless agricultural labourers and migrant workers?
Ans. Measures to protect the right of Landless:
•Abolition of bonded labour legally:
Bandhua mazdoor (bonded labourers) practice in U.P and Bihar, Halpati System in Gujarat and Jeeta System in Karnataka has been legally abolished by the Government of India.
•Abolition of Zamindari System: The intermediaries between the peasants and the state were the Zamindars. The state very effectively and intensively passed legislation and this system was abolished.
• Abolition and regulation act for Tenancy:
These laws discouraged tenancy or ‘Batai’ system. In West Bengal and Kerala, where CPI systems government was in power the tenants got the land rights.
•Imposition of Land Ceiling Act:
According to this act the upper limit of land for an owner is being fixed. Because of this act to identify surplus land and redistribute among the landless became programme of the state. Binoba Bhave’s Bhoodan yojna instructed this legislation but there are many shortcomings in this act and should be taken care of.
•To improve the condition of landless people living in villages the state should take appropriate measures and this whole sector should be organised.
•The economic conditions of villages should be improved by the state. Villages should be well connected to the ties, job opportunities should be creaked in the villages. Education and health facilities as well as entertainment facilities should be developed in the villages to discourage migration. MANREGA is an effective measure in this duration.
•Consolidation of Land: Landowner farmers are given one or two bigger piece of land in lieu of their several scattered small fields. It may be done as voluntary consolidation or as compulsory consolidation. This can bring about lot of efficiencies in agriculture process as a farmer.
3. There are direct linkages between the situation of agricultural workers and then- lack of upward socio-economic mobility. Name some of them.
Ans. • Indian rural society is totally dependent on agriculture. It is the only source of their livelihood. Unfortunately it is unevenly distributed, not organised and many people of ruralSociety are landless.
•Indian rural society has patrilineal kinship system. According to legal system women are supposed to have an equal right of family property but actually it is simply on papers. Because of male dominance, they are deprived of their rights.
•Most of the people in villages are landless and for their livelihood they become agriculture workers. They are paid below the statutory minimum wages. Their job is not regular and employment is insecure. Mostly these agriculture workers work on daily wages.
•The tenants also have lower income because they have to pay a large amount of production to the landowner.
•The ownership of land or its total area determines the position of the farmer’s upward or downward mobility in his socio-economic system. Therefore the agrarian society can be understood in terms of its class structure which is structured through the Caste system.
Although this is not always true. In rural society, Brahmins are the dominant caste but they are not the main landowners so they are part of rural society but fall outside the agrarian structure.These questions are based on Self-Study. Students should do the solutions.
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NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Chapter 4 Change And Development In Rural Society With Answer PDF Free Download