Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata 3 Volumes In English PDF

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Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata 3 Volumes

This is how the lengths of the orbits of the various planets stated above have been obtained. In the case of the asterisms, it is assumed that their orbit is 60 times the orbit of the Sun.

By saying that “the orbit of the asterisks divided by 60 gives the orbit of the Sun”, Aryabhata I really means to say that “the orbit of the asterisms is 60 times the orbit of the Sun.”

Indian astronomers, particularly the followers of Aryabhata I believe that the distance described by a planet in a jugum denotes the circumference of the space, supposed to be spherical, which is illumined by the Sun’s rays.

This space, they call the sky’ and its circumference “the orbit of the sky’. Bhaskara 1 says: “(The outer boundary of) that much of the sky as the Sun’s rays illumine on all sides is called the circumference or orbit of the sky. Otherwise, the sky is beyond limit; it is impossible to state its measure.”

For us the sky extends to as far as it is illumined by the rays of the Sun. Beyond that, the sky is immeasurable, “The diameters of Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, Satura and Mars are, respectively, 1/5, 1/10, 1/15, 1/20 and 1/25 of the diameter of the Moon, when taken at the mean distance of the Sun.

This is incorrect, because : “”When taken at the mean distance of the Sun” is not the correct translation of samarkasamah.

The correct translation is: “The years are solar yeurs” as interpreted by Bhaskara I and Someivara; or “The years of a yuga are equal to the number of revolutions of the Sun in a yuga”

as translated by Clark and as interpreted by Suryadeva, Parameśvara and Raghunatha-raja.

The diameters of the planets stated in the stanza under consideration correspond to the mean distance of the Moon and not to the mean distance of the Sun as Sengupta has supposed.

Sengupta’s disagreement on this point from the commentator Parameswara is unwarranted. All commentators agree with Paramešvara.

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