Water Pollution EVS Project PDF

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Project on Water Pollution PDF

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers, and groundwater). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.

Sources of Water Pollution

There are various classifications of water pollution. The two chief sources of water pollution can be seen as Point and Non-Point. Point Sources refer to the pollutants that belong to a single source.

An example of this would be emissions from factories into the water. Non Point Sources on the other hand means pollutants emitted from multiple sources. Contaminated water after rains that has traveled through several regions may also be considered a Nonpoint source of pollution.

Causes of Water Pollution

 1. Industrial waste: Industries produce huge amounts of waste which contain toxic chemicals and pollutants which can cause air pollution and damage to us and our environment. They contain pollutants such as lead, mercury, sulfur, asbestos, nitrates, and many other harmful chemicals.

Many industries do not have proper waste management systems and drain the waste in the freshwater which goes into rivers, canals, and later into the sea. The toxic chemicals have the capability to change the color of water, increase the number of minerals, also known as Eutrophication, change the temperature of the water, and pose serious hazards to water organisms.

2. Sewage and wastewater: The sewage and wastewater that is produced by each household is chemically treated and released into sea with fresh water. The sewage water carries harmful bacteria and chemicals that can cause serious health problems. Pathogens are known as a common water pollutants; The sewers of cities house several pathogens and thereby diseases.

Microorganisms in water are known to be causes of some very deadly diseases and become the breeding grounds for other creatures that act like carriers. These carriers inflict these diseases via various forms of contact with an individual. A very common example of this process would be Malaria.

3. Mining activities: Mining is the process of crushing rock and extracting coal and other minerals from underground. These elements when extracted in the raw form contain harmful chemicals and can increase the amount of toxic elements when mixed up with water which may result in health problems. Mining activities emit several metal waste and sulfides from the rocks and is harmful to the water.

 4. Marine dumping: The garbage produced by each household in the form of paper, aluminum, rubber, glass, plastic, and food if collected and deposited into the sea in some countries. These items take from 2 weeks to 200 years to decompose. When such items enter the sea, they not only cause water pollution but also harm animals in the sea.

5. Accidental Oil leakage: Oil spills pose a huge concern as a large amount of oil enters into the sea and does not dissolve with water; thereby opens problems for local marine wildlife such as fish, birds, and sea otters.

For e.g.: a ship carrying a large quantity of oil may spill oil if met with an accident and can cause varying damage to species in the ocean depending on the quantity of oil spill, the size of the ocean, and the toxicity of pollutants.

 6. Burning of fossil fuels: Fossil fuels like coal and oil when burnt produce a substantial amount of ash in the atmosphere. The particles which contain toxic chemicals when mixed with water vapor result in acid rain. Also, carbon dioxide is released from the burning of fossil fuels which results in global warming.

7. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides: Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used by farmers to protect crops from insects and bacteria. They are useful for the plant’s growth.

However, when these chemicals are mixed up with water produce harmful to plants and animals. Also, when it rains, the chemicals mix up with rainwater and flow down into rivers and canals which pose serious damage for aquatic animals

8. Leakage from sewer lines: A small leakage from the sewer lines can contaminate the underground water and make it unfit for people to drink. Also, when not repaired on time, the leaking water can come onto the surface and become a breeding ground for insects and mosquitoes.

9. Global warming: An increase in the earth’s temperature due to the greenhouse effect results in global warming. It increases the water temperature and results in the death of aquatic animals and marine species which later results in water pollution.

10. Radioactive waste: Nuclear energy is produced using nuclear fission or fusion. The element that is used in the production of nuclear energy is Uranium which is a highly toxic chemical.

11. The nuclear waste that is produced by radioactive material needs to be disposed of to prevent any nuclear accident. Nuclear waste can have serious environmental hazards if not disposed of properly. A few major accidents have already taken place in Russia and Japan.

12. Leakage from the landfills: Landfills are nothing but a huge pile of garbage that produces awful smell and can be seen across the city. When it rains, the landfills may leak and the leaking landfills can pollute the underground water with a large variety of contaminants.

 13. Animal waste: The waste produce produced by animals has washed away into the rivers when it rains. It gets mixed up with other harmful chemicals and causes various water-borne diseases like cholera, diarrhea, jaundice, dysentery, and typhoid.

14. Underground storage leakage: Transportation of coal and other petroleum products through underground pipes is well known. Accidental leakage may happen anytime and may cause damage to the environment and result in soil erosion.

Language English
No. of Pages17
PDF Size0.2 MB

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