The Role of Education in the Process of Socialization PDF

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What is Socialisation?

Socialization is an important process for the operation and continuity of society. Different societies have different ways and methods of training their newborn members so that they can develop their personalities.

This training and formation of the child’s personality is called socialization. Socialization is a process of learning the rules, habits, and values of the group to which a person belongs whether it is family, friends, coworkers, or any other group.

It is the process by which a child gradually becomes aware of himself as a member of a group and acquires knowledge about the culture of the family and the society into which he is born. Socialization is also considered to be the transfer of culture from one generation to the next.

During the process of socialization, children learn about their family traditions from their elders preserve them, and pass them on to the next generation as they grow up.

Socialization helps children to learn and perform the various roles and responsibilities that they have learned from their elders. Therefore, it helps to connect one generation with another (Giddens, 2006; Jonson, 1960).

Some definitions of socialization i) Anthony Giddens: “Socialization refers to the process that transforms a helpless human infant into a self-aware, knowledgeable individual who is proficient in the ways of his society’s culture” (2014:263 -64). ii) Peter Worsley: ” It simply means transmission of culture, the process by which humans learn the rules and customs of social groups.

Socialization is an aspect of all activity within all human societies” (1972:153). iii) Tony Bilton: “The process by which we acquire the culture of the society in which we are born, the process by which we acquire our social characteristics and the ways of thought and behavior considered appropriate in our society.” Learn—is called socialization” (1981:10).

Socialization is a process that continues throughout life from birth to adulthood. However, there are different phases in which the process takes place. These phases are usually spread across different age groups and have been categorized as different types of socialization.

Primary Socialisation

Primary socialization is the most important feature in the process of socialization. It happens during infancy and childhood. The primary stage takes shape during infancy and childhood when basic knowledge and language or behavior are taught.

This phase of socialization usually takes place within the family. During this phase, infants learn the language and certain basic Socialisation behavior forms of the family and the society in which she/he lives. It is through primary socialization that the foundations for later learning are laid.

As Frønesargues, “Primarysocialisation refers to the internalization of the fundamental culture and ideas of a society; it shapes the norms, values, and beliefs of the child at a time when it has little understanding of the world and its different phenomena, and the basic socialization agent molding the child is the family” (Frønes, 2016: 13).

Secondary Socialisation

Secondary Socialization occurs once the infant passes into the childhood phase and continues into maturity. During this phase, more than the family some other agents of socialization like the school and friends groups begin to play a role in socializing the child.

Different kinds of social interaction through these different agents of socialization help the child to learn the moral standards, customs, and principles of their society and culture.

When the child receives training in institutional or formal settings such as school, secondary socialization takes shape. This level runs parallel to primary socialization. But, unlike the family settings, children in schools are trained to conform to authority.

Frønesargues that, secondary socialization is usually carried out by institutions and people in specific roles and positions.

Further, it involves the “acquisition of knowledge and conscious learning, and thus opens for critical reflection, while primary socialization points to the transmission of naturalized cultural patterns”

Gender Socialisation

Gender socialization can be understood as the process by which different agents of socialization shape the thoughts of children and make them learn different gender roles.

According to the World Health Organisation, Gender “refers to the socially constructed characteristics of women and men – such as norms, roles and relationships of and between groups of women and men.” Gender role refers to “social roles assigned to each sex and labeled as masculine or feminine”(Giddens, 2014: 82).

Much before children begin to know themselves as a male or a female they receive a series of clues from adults in their family and society because male and female adults have different ways of managing infants. Infants learn quite a lot from visual and symbolic indicators.

Differences in the manner of dressing, hairstyle, and different cosmetic products used by men and women, provide children with indicators of variation between the male and females. Within two years of age, children begin to vaguely understand what gender is.

Apart from adults around them, children receive a lot of clues about gender roles and differences from television programs, toys they play with as well as from their coloring and picture books.

For example, a baby girl is very commonly seen playing with dolls and/or a kitchen set while a boy would be found playing with toy cars and/or toy guns.

However, today the definition of gender is no longer fixed within the binary of male and female because there is a third category which is often referred to as the third gender.

The term third gender is assigned to a person by society or by the person/himself when one does not want to be recognized as a male or a female. In some societies where three or more genders are recognized, we can find the use of the term third gender.

This is usually associated with the gender role that a person performs and in some societies, the gender roles are not very strictly defined. The term third gender is often used to describe hijras in the context of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

More recently the term third gender is also associated with the term Queer wherein any person not willing to be strictly identified as male or female may be categorized as a Queer person (Towle and Morgan, 2002).

Language English
No. of Pages12
PDF Size0.3 MB

Education And Socialization PDF

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