Smart Thinking: Skills For Critical Understanding And Writing PDF

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Smart Thinking PDF Free Download

Smart Thinking Book PDF Free Download

Smart Thinking

To get the most out of this book, you will need to read it carefully chapter by chapter.

The book builds sequentially so that many of the ideas and concepts introduced in earlier chapters underpin a more complex discussion of related issues in subsequent chapters.

Also, as you go, you should do the exercises in each chapter. Do not check the answers until you have completed all of a particular exercise and are satisfied with them.

When you turn to the Answers, Discussion, and Further Advice, you will see that, in most cases, there is further discussion of the issues and concepts relevant to each exercise.

As much as you can, don’t be tempted to look at the next set of answers until you have completed the exercises for them.

Often, you will be asked to do an exercise in order to provide you with the experience necessary to get the most out of the further advice offered in the answers.

And, when you have done the exercises and checked the answers, I expect you will need to reread and revise the chapter again.

After you have read a chapter, done the exercises, and checked the answers, look at the Concept Check and Review Exercise at the end of the chapter.

The concepts introduced in each chapter are listed. You should briefly write down what you know about them, then turn to the Glossary to check your answers.

There are, by contrast, no answers provided for the review questions that you will find at the end of most chapters.

If you have understood and integrated the material in each chapter, you should be able to answer these questions confidently.

If you cannot, then it is probably a sign that you have missed something.

Finally, you should integrate what you learn about reasoning in this book with the work or study you are doing at the moment.

For example, when doing the exercises and review questions, you will often be called upon to use information from your own life as examples or basic material with which to do an exercise.

So, smart thinking is about reasoning, which is about the use and communication of knowledge.

Researching, reading, analysing, testing, checking, planning, and writing all depend on understanding those interrelationships.

Once you understand that knowledge consists of innumerable interrelations between small ‘bits’ of information, then you will be able to find, shape, and use knowledge for yourself.

But reasoning is also about people: the authors and audiences of arguments, explanations, and so on. And it is in relation to the human, social aspect of reasoning that we must really be ‘smart’.

Reasoning is not just formal logic; nor is it an abstract way of thinking about ideas. It is always a social act. People always use reasoning for particular purposes (be they economic, political, or whatever).

They all have different perspectives on the issues being debated.

Their age, class, race, gender, and ethnicity all influence the broad structures upon which they rely in reasoning.

If we forget that reasoning has this social aspect, then we will run the risk of failing to think effectively (this point will be explored in more detail in later chapters).

The connections and relations between ideas, events, proposals, and so on only become meaningful in the context of how, when, where, and why they are communicated with others.

How do we study smart thinking?

Thinking about thinking Reasoning is something we already do: all of us have learnt, in one way or another, to think and to reason, to make connections and see relationships between various events and attitudes in our world.

So, being a smart thinker is not about becoming a different sort of person, but about improving skills that you already have.

The way to achieve this goal (and the main emphasis within this book) is to become explicitly aware of the analytical processes involved in reasoning.

If you do, then you will be able to analyse complex issues more deeply, understand and process information more effectively, and communicate your ideas convincingly.

In succeeding chapters, then, we will learn a way of talking

AuthorMatthew Allen
PDF Size3.57 MB
CategorySelf Improvement

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