PISA 2021 Mathematics Framework PDF

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PISA Mathematics Framework

  1. The assessment of mathematics has particular significance for PISA 2021, as
    mathematics is again the major domain assessed. Although mathematics was assessed by
    PISA in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012, 2015, and 2018, the domain was the main area
    of focus only in 2003 and 2012.
  2. The return of mathematics as the major domain in PISA 2021 provides both
    the opportunity to continue to make comparisons in student performance over time, and to
    re-examine what should be assessed in light of changes that have occurred in the world, the
    field and instructional policies and practices.
  3. Each country has a vision of mathematical competence and organizes their
    schooling to achieve an expected outcome. Mathematical competence historically
    encompassed performing basic arithmetic skills or operations, including adding,
    subtracting, multiplying, and dividing whole numbers, decimals, and fractions; computing
    percentages; and computing the area and volume of simple geometric shapes. In recent
    times, the digitization of many aspects of life, the ubiquity of data for making personal
    decisions involving initially education and career planning, and, later in life, health
    and investments, as well as major societal challenges to address areas such as climate
    change, governmental debt, population growth, the spread of pandemic diseases
    and the globalizing economy, have reshaped what it means to be mathematically competent
    and to be well-equipped to participate as a thoughtful, engaged, and reflective citizen in the
    21st century.
  4. The critical issues listed above as well as others that are facing societies throughout
    the world all have a quantitative component to them. Understanding them, as well as
    addressing them, at least in part, requires being mathematically literate and thinking
    mathematically. Such mathematical thinking in more and more complex contexts is not
    driven by the reproduction of the basic computational procedures mentioned earlier, but
    rather by reasoning1
    (both deductive and inductive). The important role of reasoning needs
    greater emphasis in our understanding of what it means for students to be mathematically
    literate. In addition to problem-solving, this framework argues that mathematical literacy
    in the 21st century includes mathematical reasoning and some aspects of computational
  5. Countries today face new opportunities and challenges in all areas of life, and many
    of which stem from the rapid deployment of computers and devices like robots,
    smartphones, and networked machines. For example, the vast majority of young adults and
    students who started university post-2015 have always considered phones to be mobile
    hand-held devices capable of sharing voice, texts, and images and accessing the internet –
    capabilities are seen as science fiction by many of their parents and certainly by all of their
    grandparents (Beloit College, 2017[1]). The recognition of the growing contextual
    the discontinuity between the last century and the future has prompted a discussion around the
    development of 21st-century skills in students (Ananiadou and Claro, 2009[2]; Fadel, Bialik
    and Trilling, 2015[3]; National Research Council, 2012[4]; Reimers and Chung, 2016[5]
  6. It is this discontinuity that also drives the need for education reform
    and the challenge of achieving it. Periodically, educators, policymakers, and other
    stakeholders revisit public education standards and policies. In the course of these
    deliberations new or revised responses to two general questions are generated: 1) What do
    students need to learn, and 2) Which students need to learn what? The most used argument
    in defense of mathematics education for all students is its usefulness in various practical
    situations. However, this argument alone gets weaker with time – a lot of simple activities
    have been automated. Not so long ago waiters in restaurants would multiply and add on
    paper to calculate the price to be paid. Today they just press buttons on hand-held devices.
    Not so long ago people used printed timetables to plan travel – it required a good
    understanding of the time axis and inequalities as well as interpreting complex two-way
    tables. Today we can just make a direct internet inquiry.
  7. As to the question of “what to teach”, many restrictive understandings arise from
    the way mathematics is conceived. Many people see mathematics as no more than a useful
    toolbox. A clear trace of this approach can be found in the school curricula of many
    countries. These are sometimes confined to a list of mathematics topics or procedures, with
    students asked to practice a selected few, in predictable (often test) situations. This
    perspective on mathematics is far too narrow for today’s world. It overlooks key features
    of mathematics that are growing in importance. Notwithstanding the above remark, there
    are an increasing number of countries that emphasize reasoning and the importance of
    relevant contexts in their curricula. Perhaps these countries can serve as helpful models to
  8. Ultimately the answer to these questions is that every student should learn (and be
    given the opportunity to learn) to think mathematically, using mathematical reasoning (both
    deductive and inductive) in conjunction with a small set of fundamental mathematical
    concepts that support this reasoning and which themselves are not necessarily taught
    explicitly but are made manifest and reinforced throughout a student’s learning
    experiences. This equips students with a conceptual framework through which to address
    the quantitative dimensions of life in the 21st century.
  9. The PISA 2021 framework is designed to make the relevance of mathematics to
    15-year-old students are clearer and more explicit while ensuring that the items developed
    remain set in meaningful and authentic contexts. The mathematical modeling cycle, used
    in earlier frameworks (e.g. OECD (2004[6]; 2013[7])) to describe the stages individuals go
    through in solving contextualized problems, remains a key feature of the PISA 2021
    framework. It is used to help define the mathematical processes in which students engage
    as they solve problems – processes that together with mathematical reasoning (both
    deductive and inductive) will provide the primary reporting dimensions.
  10. For PISA 2021, computer-based assessment of mathematics (CBAM) will be
    the primary mode of delivery for assessing mathematical literacy. However, paper-based
    assessment instruments will be provided for countries choosing not to test their students by
    computer. The framework has been updated to also reflect the change in delivery mode
    introduced in 2015, including a discussion of the considerations that should inform the
    development of the CBAM items as this will be the first major update to the mathematics
    framework since computer-based assessment was introduced in PISA.
  11. The development of the PISA 2021 framework takes into account the expectation
    of the OECD that there will be an increase in the participation in PISA of low-and middle-income countries. In particular, the PISA 2021 framework recognizes the need
    to increase the resolution of the PISA assessments at the lower end of the student
Language English
No. of Pages95
PDF Size6.1 MB

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