The Oxford Hindi English Dictionary PDF

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Complete Dictionary

The term ‘modern Hindi’ refers to a language written in the Devanagari script and relatively standardized in its written form (but less so in pronunciation and oral use) that is in common use today in much of north and central India.

Modern Hindi co-exists in the region with regional variants of the dialect and several local dialects, as well as Urdu, which is a complementary style of the language:

One is likely similar to modern Hindi at the colloquial level while expressing a distinctly Persian cultural orientation at the more literary levels.

Urdu, which was a specialization of the mixed dialect of the Delhi region before Hindi, gained popularity as a language, largely due to the increasing artificiality in the use of Persian for literary and other formal purposes in Indo-Muslim circles. was born in Later Mughal period.

In contrast, modern Hindi emerged in the nineteenth century to meet a different need: for a linguistic medium that would allow communication with and among a wider section of the North Indian population, which in the case of Urdu was possible in practice.

The use of Indian script, and a small component of Persian and Arabic vocabulary, which were frequently used in Urdu of the time, were prerequisites for this purpose.

In the new style, the use of words of Indian origin, and especially Sanskrit words, increased.

Explanatory notes for reading dictionary

Below is some information about the structure and presentation of dictionary entries.

structure of entries

Entries may contain up to twelve parts in the following order: 1. Title. 2. Transliteration. 3. Origin. 4. Grammatical designation. 5. Phonetic transcription. 6. Subject Label. 7. Linguistic Label. 8. Stylized Labels. 9. Shine. 10. Examples of Use. 11. Titled compound words. 12. Run-on Form.

1 Title word (the word to be hidden), in Devanagari script.

The structure of the language favors the use of compound words built on single base units.

Compound words are usually not entered individually as headwords, but rather under the base word from which they are built, eg. The jal-verb ‘offering of water’ is recorded under jal ‘water’, and so are many other compounds formed on this basis.

This procedure is generally followed in the case of compounds made of words borrowed from Sanskrit.

However, compounds formed on words of other origins are in various cases recorded as titles instead of their first members. If the user of the dictionary fails to find in the entry the obvious first member of a given word, which appears to be a compound, he must treat it as a heading before concluding that it is not included. Has gone.

Some items that are not independent lexical units of language are recorded as headings, eg. Hindi prefixes, various Hindi suffixes, various Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic prefixes, compound forms (eg du-, dvi- ‘two, bi-‘) and some compositional elements (eg -d ‘give’, -prad ‘producer)’ , -prev -ly’, -där ‘-to be’) that occurs only in compounds that end in -.

Citing these items as headings can identify the meanings of many compound words of Sanskrit origin that are not included in the dictionary; Also the meaning of many Hindi words and some Urdu words.

2 Transliteration of the title word in Roman script. The transliteration view on page 422 is an adaptation of the transliteration used for Sanskrit (which has often been used with modifications for Hindi). Broadly this will serve as a guide to the pronunciation of the title in educated modern usage.

The ‘inherent’ Sanskritic vowel /a/ (which is weakened by Hindi speakers in many phonetic contexts, and dropped in others) is represented where weakened by ă, and where dropped is unrepresented.

Prefixes and a few prefixed elements are identified by the use of hyphens, e.g. pari-śram, vy-avă-här, be-kār, lä-javāb; and sandhi junctions by the use of circumflex accents, e.g. protsähan.

4 Grammatical designation. The usual abbreviations are employed. Gender variation in nouns is marked, e.g. qalam, f. m. (primarily feminine); aśnä, m., f. (of varying gender according to sex of referend).

5 Phonemic transcription. A broad transcription is given in some cases where a common pronunciation of the headword varies unpredictably from what is suggested by its spelling, e.g. vah var. /võh/; gun var. /gur/.

6 Subject label, denoting a particular field of knowledge, e.g. hort., bot., gram.

7 Linguistic label, referring to the headword to a particular variety of language. Use of a particular label does not mean that another, or others, may not also apply. The following are used:

U. reg. words belonging to Urdu rather than to Hindi usage regional words not part of normal educated usage in the standardized language.

This abbreviation may be followed by any of the designations E. current in or recorded from the eastern Hindi area;

Typographical Conventions

I. Brackets are used

(a) to clarify contexts of use, e.g. märnä, to blunt (a blade, an edge); to round off (a corner, &c.); to assail (as hunger, emotion, or perplexity; or as a vice); apna karnā, to make (a person or thing) one’s own;

(b) to indicate cases where addition or deletion of a term has little bearing on the effective sense of an expression, e.g. (thik) samay par, punctually;

(c) to indicate the nature of the constructions into which words enter. In many of these cases, the relevant English and Hindi words are bracketed together, e.g. bolnā, to speak (to, with, se); milnā, to accrue (to, ko); kośiś karnā, to try (to, ki).

2 Hyphens are used, in headwords,

(a) with verb stems, to indicate that a given stem is a regional one not used in the modern standardised language, e.g. mät-;

(b) with stems of masculine nouns and of adjectives recorded from

7 Suffixes consisting of vowels or containing an initial vowel are to be understood as conjoined with loss of stem final -: परमार्थ + = परमार्थी; पुनर्वास + बन = पुनर्वासन

AuthorR S McGregor
Language Hindi, English
No. of Pages1106
PDF Size505 MB

Note: PDF Size Is Very High

Oxford Hindi English Dictionary PDF Free Download

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