The Oxford Hindi English Dictionary PDF

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Complete Dictionary

The term ‘modern Hindi’ denotes a language written in the Devanagarī script and relatively standardized in its written form (but less so in pronunciation and spoken usage) which is in general use today in most of north and central India.

Modern Hindi co-exists in this region with regional forms of speech more or less closely cognate to it and with many local dialects, as well as with Urdu, a complementary style of language:

one potentially identical with modern Hindi at the spoken level while expressing a distinctively Persian cultural orientation at more literary levels.

Urdu, an earlier specialization than Hindi of a mixed speech of the Delhi area which had gained currency as a lingua franca, had arisen broadly because of an increasing artificiality in the use of Persian for literary and other formal purposes in Indo-Muslim circles during the later Mughal period.

Modern Hindi by contrast arose in the nineteenth century to meet a different need: for a linguistic vehicle that should allow communication with, and among, a wider section of the north Indian population than had been possible in practice in the case of Urdu.

The use of an Indian script, and a smaller component of Persian and Arabic vocabulary than often used in the Urdu of the time, were essential prerequisites to this end.

There was a correspondingly increased use of words of Indian origin in the new style, and in particular of Sanskritic words.

Explanatory Notes For Reading Dictionary

Some information about the structure and presentation of the dictionary entries is provided below.

STRUCTURE OF ENTRIES

Entries may contain up to twelve parts, in the following order: 1. Headword. 2. Transliteration. 3. Derivation. 4. Grammatical designation. 5. Phonemic transcription. 6. Subject label. 7. Linguistic label. 8. Stylistic label. 9. Gloss. 10. Examples of use. 11. Compound words containing the headword. 12. Run-on forms.

1 Headword (the word to be glossed), in Devanagari script.

The structure of the language favors the use of compound words built upon single base units.

Compound words are usually not entered individually as headwords but under the base word on which they are formed, e.g. jal-kriya ‘offering of water’ is entered under jal ‘water’, and similarly many other compounds formed on this base.

This procedure is normally followed in the case of compounds consisting of words borrowed from Sanskrit.

Compounds formed on words of other origin have in various cases been entered as headwords, however, rather than under their first members. If the user of the dictionary fails to find a given word, which appears to be a compound, in the entry for its apparent first member, he or she should therefore look for it as a headword before concluding that it has not been included.

Some items which are not independent lexical units of the language have been entered as headwords, viz. Hindi prefixes, various Hindi suffixes, various Sanskrit, Persian, and Arabic prefixes, compounding forms (such as du-, dvi- ‘two, bi-‘) and some formative elements (such as -d ‘giving’, -prad ‘productive of’, -purvak -ly’, -där ‘-having’) which occur only finally in compounds.

Citation of these items as headwords should allow iden tification of the meanings of many compound words of Sanskritic origin which have not been included in the dictionary; as well as the meanings of many Hindi words and some Urdu words.

2 Transliteration of the headword, in roman script. The transliteration is View Page 422 an adaptation of that used for Sanskrit (which has been often used, with modifications, for Hindi). Broadly speaking it will serve as a guide to the pronunciation of the headword in educated modern usage.

The ‘inherent’ Sanskritic vowel /a/ (which is weakened by Hindi speakers in many phonetic contexts, and dropped in others) is represented where weakened by ă, and where dropped is unrepresented.

Prefixes and a few prefixed elements are identified by the use of hyphens, e.g. pari-śram, vy-avă-här, be-kār, lä-javāb; and sandhi junctions by the use of circumflex accents, e.g. protsähan.

4 Grammatical designation. The usual abbreviations are employed. Gender variation in nouns is marked, e.g. qalam, f. m. (primarily feminine); aśnä, m., f. (of varying gender according to sex of referend).

5 Phonemic transcription. A broad transcription is given in some cases where a common pronunciation of the headword varies unpredictably from what is suggested by its spelling, e.g. vah var. /võh/; gun var. /gur/.

6 Subject label, denoting a particular field of knowledge, e.g. hort., bot., gram.

7 Linguistic label, referring to the headword to a particular variety of language. Use of a particular label does not mean that another, or others, may not also apply. The following are used:

U. reg. words belonging to Urdu rather than to Hindi usage regional words not part of normal educated usage in the standardized language.

This abbreviation may be followed by any of the designations E. current in or recorded from the eastern Hindi area;

Typographical Conventions

I. Brackets are used

(a) to clarify contexts of use, e.g. märnä, to blunt (a blade, an edge); to round off (a corner, &c.); to assail (as hunger, emotion, or perplexity; or as a vice); apna karnā, to make (a person or thing) one’s own;

(b) to indicate cases where addition or deletion of a term has little bearing on the effective sense of an expression, e.g. (thik) samay par, punctually;

(c) to indicate the nature of the constructions into which words enter. In many of these cases, the relevant English and Hindi words are bracketed together, e.g. bolnā, to speak (to, with, se); milnā, to accrue (to, ko); kośiś karnā, to try (to, ki).

2 Hyphens are used, in headwords,

(a) with verb stems, to indicate that a given stem is a regional one not used in the modern standardised language, e.g. mät-;

(b) with stems of masculine nouns and of adjectives recorded from

7 Suffixes consisting of vowels or containing an initial vowel are to be understood as conjoined with loss of stem final -: परमार्थ + = परमार्थी; पुनर्वास + बन = पुनर्वासन

AuthorR S McGregor
Language Hindi, English
No. of Pages1106
PDF Size505 MB
CategoryDictionary
Source/Creditsarchive.org

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Oxford Hindi English Dictionary PDF Free Download

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