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The biological sector is very much more limited in extent; however, with the emergence of the two basic properties of living matter-self-reproduction and variation (mutation).
A new and much more potent method of change became available to live, in the shape of natural selection. As a result, the possible rate of evolution was enormously speeded up.
Thus the entire evolution of life, from its pre-cellular origins to man, has taken little more than 2x 10 years, and quite large changes.
Such as the evolution of the fully specialized horses from their small and generalized ancestors, or that of the first true birds from reptiles, have been achieved in periods which are nearer 10 than 10 years.
Finally, there is the human sector. This is still further restricted in extent, being confined to the single species, Homo sapiens.
But once more a new and more efficient method of change is available. It becomes available through man’s distinctively human properties of speech and conceptual thought.
Objectively speaking, the new method consists of cumulative tradition, forming the basis of that social heredity by means of which human societies and cultures maintain themselves and develop.
But it also has a subjective aspect. Cumulative tradition, like all other distinctively human activities, is largely based on conscious processes, on knowledge and purpose, on conscious feeling and conscious choice.
Thus the struggle for existence that underlies natural selection is increasingly replaced by a struggle between ideas and values in the shared consciousness of social beings.
Resulting in what we may call conscious or psychosocial selection. Through these new agencies, the possible rate of evolution was again enormously speeded up.
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