Human Anatomy And Body System PDF

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Human Anatomy And Body System

  • Skeletal system
  • Muscular system
  • Digestive system
  • Respiratory system
  • Circulatory system
  • Lymphatic system
  • Nervous system
  • Endocrine system
  • Urinary system
  • Reproductive system
  • How to use this book
  • Index

Why do we drink water?

Our body is about 70% water. Some parts are more or less watery: the grey matter of the brain is about 85% water; fat cells contain only about 15% water.

A person normally takes in between 1.5 and 3.5 liters of water each day (in both food and drink), depending on how hot and dry the weather is.

Obviously, we cannot keep accumulating all that water – our body gets rid of the same amount of water as it ingests.

So why do we need to keep taking in water each day?

(1) To sweat. When we sweat, water evaporates from our skin, which removes excess heat from our bodies. So the hotter we get, the more water we need to drink. About 40% of the water we take in leaves as sweat.

(2) To wash the insides of our bodies – to remove waste products. This is what the urinary system does.
About 60% of the water we take in leaves as urine.

How do the kidneys remove wastes from the blood?

Each kidney contains millions of nephrons, which filter the blood that passes through them. In the nephron, capillaries pass through the glomerulus.

Slits in the glomerulus prevent blood cells and larger molecules from passing out.

The acidity and concentrations of various substances in the blood are maintained by diffusion and active transport of excess amounts into urine collecting tubules.

The urine is composed of water (about 95%), potassium, bicarbonate, sodium, glucose, amino acids, and the waste products urea and uric acid.

WriterArvind Gupta
Pdf Size1.84 MB

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