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Chemistry The Central Science 14th Edition Book PDF Free Download
THE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY
Before traveling to an unfamiliar city, you might look at a map to get some sense of where you are heading.
Because chemistry may be unfamiliar to you, it’s useful to get a general idea of what lies ahead before you embark on your journey.
In fact, you might even ask why you are taking the trip.
The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of Chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of matter.
Matter is the physical material of the universe; it is anything that has mass and occupies space.
A property is any characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular type of matter and to distinguish it from other types.
This book, your body, the air you are breathing, and the clothes you are wearing are all samples of matter.
Countless experiments have shown that the tremendous variety of matter in our world is due to combinations of only about 100 substances called elements.
As we proceed through this text, we will seek to relate the properties of matter to its composition, that is, to the particular elements it contains.
Chemistry also provides a background for understanding the properties of matter in terms of atoms, the almost infinitesimally small building blocks of matter.
Each element is composed of a unique kind of atom. We will see that the properties of matter relate to both the kinds of atoms the matter contains (composition) and to the arrangements of these atoms (structure).
In molecules, two or more atoms are joined together in specific shapes.
Throughout this text, you will see molecules represented using colored spheres to show how the atoms are connected (FIGURE 1.1). The color provides a convenient way to distinguish between atoms of different elements.
For example, notice that the molecules of ethanol and ethylene glycol in Figure 1.1 have different compositions and structures Ethanol contains one oxygen atom, depicted by one red sphere.
In contrast, ethylene glycol contains two oxygen atoms.
Even apparently minor differences in the composition or structure of molecules can cause profound differences in properties.
Ethanol, for example, is the alcohol in beverages such as beer and wine, whereas ethylene glycol is a viscous liquid used as automobile antifreeze.
The properties of these two substances differ in many ways, as do their biological activities.
Ethanol is consumed throughout the world, but you should never consume ethylene glycol because it is highly toxic.
One of the challenges chemists undertake is to alter the composition or structure of molecules in a controlled way, creating new substances with different properties.
Every change in the observable world boiling water to the changes that occur as our bodies combat invading viruses its basis in the world of atoms and molecules.
Thus, as we proceed with our study of chemistry, we will find ourselves thinking in two realms: the macroscopic realm of ordinary-sized objects (macro-large) and the submicroscopic realm of atoms and molecules.
We make our observations in the macroscopic world, but to understand that world, we must visualize how atoms and molecules behave at the submicroscopic level.
Chemistry is the science that seeks to understand the properties and behavior of matter by studying the properties and behavior of atoms and molecules.
Chemistry greatly impacts our daily lives.
Indeed, chemistry lies near the heart of many matters of public concern; improvement of health care, conservation of natural resources, protection of the environment, and provision of our daily needs for food, clothing, and shelter.
Using chemistry, we have discovered pharmaceutical chemicals that enhance health and prolong lives.
We have increased food production through the use of fertilizers and pesticides, and we have developed plastics and other materials used in almost every facet of our lives, from electronics to sporting equipment to building construction.
Unfortunately, some chemicals can harm our health or the environment.
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Chemistry The Central Science PDF Free Download