UPSC Mains GS 2 Examination Syllabus 2023 PDF

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Official UPSC GS 2 Syllabus

General Studies‐ II: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations.

Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions

Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.

Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

Role of civil services in a democracy.

India and its neighborhood- relations.

Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

UPSC GS 2 Syllabus Detail

GS 2 Syllabus for Governance

Governance section under GS 2 Mains Syllabus includes Government Policies & Interventions for Development, Development Processes & the Development Industry, Important Aspects of Governance, Transparency & Accountability and Role of Civil Services in a Democracy. The detailed coverage of topics is as under:

Government Policies & Interventions in Various Sectors

• Health, Gender, Education, Poverty, Economic etc

Issues Arising Out of Their Design & Implementation

• Concerns/Issues
• Suggestions for Improvement
• Critical Assessment of Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS)
• Rationalisation of CSS

Analysis of Main Schemes

• Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
• Smart City
• Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
• Digital India
• Make in India
• Skill India
• PM Jan Dhan Yojana
• Start-up India etc.

Development Processes & the Development Industry

• Role of Social Capital Organisations
• Indian Context
• Classification
• Provisions for the Third Sector in the Indian Constitution
• National Policy on the Voluntary Sector 2007

Non-Governmental Organisations

• Role and Impact of Non-governmental Organizations
• Issue Areas: Accreditation, Legitimacy & Accountability, Foreign Funding etc.

Self Help Groups (SHGs)

• Need for SHGs
• Benefits of SHGs
• Weaknesses of SHGs
• Challenges
• Measures to Make SHGs Effective
• Case Studies: Kudumbashree (Kerala), Mahila Arthik Vikas Mahamandal (Maharashtra)

Societies, Trusts and Cooperatives

• Societies
• Trust
• Religious Endowments
• Cooperatives
o Need for Cooperatives
o Constitutional Provisions
o National Policy on Co-operatives, 2002
o Issues and Challenges in the Cooperatives Sector

Important Aspects of Governance

• Dimensions of Governance
• Good Governance (GG)
• Aspects of GG
• Barriers to GG
• Necessary Pre-conditions for GG
• How to Ensure GG


• Applications
• Models
• Successes
• Limitations
• Potential
• Recent e-governance Initiatives by Government

Citizens Charters (CC)

• Components of CC
• Features of CC
• Six Principles of CC
• Shortcomings of CC
• Measures to Make CC Effective
• Sevottam Model

Aspects of Transparency and Means to ensure Transparency & Accountability- Elements & Types of Accountability

• Social Audit
• Whistleblower Protection Bill
• Lokpal & Lokayuktas Act

Role of Civil Services in a Democracy

• Advisory Role in Policy Making
• Institutionalise Socio-economic change

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Language English
No. of Pages13
PDF Size2 MB
CategoryUPSC Syllabus

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