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UPSC Optional Geography Paper 1 And 2 Syllabus PDF Free Download
Official UPSC Optional Geography Paper 1 And 2 Syllabus
PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY
Physical Geography :
- Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic
forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical
conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics;
Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of
geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel
morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology;
Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.
- Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth;
Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds;
Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types
and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and
Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change,
and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.
- Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans;
Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves,
currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs
coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.
- Biogeography : Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil
erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants
and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry,
agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
- Environmental Geography : Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence
of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and
imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation,
management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental
policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and
Human Geography :
- Perspectives in Human Geography : Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis;
Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis;
Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and
secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development indix.
- Economic Geography : World economic development: measurement and problems; World
resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture:
typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions
problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location
patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.
- Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population;
Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of
over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and
policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital.
Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements;
Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size
rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe;
Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
- Regional Planning : Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation;
Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies;
Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
- Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human geography;
Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of
Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location;
Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and
Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.
GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA
- Physical Setting : Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and
relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian
monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and
droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.
- Resources : Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine
resources, Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
- Agriculture : Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land
holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity,
agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green
revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming;
Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and
poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.
- Industry : Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel,
aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and
ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector underkings;
Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special
Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.
- Transport, Communication and Trade : Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline
net works and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of
ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy;Export processing zones;
Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on
economy and society; Indian space programme.
- Cultural Setting : Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic
diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural
regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes:
sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration
(inter-regional, interaregional and international) and associated problems; Population
problems and policies; Health indicators.
- Settlements : Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments;
Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and
metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and asssociated problems; Town planning;
Problems of urbanisation and remedies.
- Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year
Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised
planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward
area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional
planning and development of island territories.
- Political Aspects : Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation;
Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International
boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs;
Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
- Contemporary Issues : Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes,
Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution;
Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and
environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental
degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and
industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable
growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and
NOTE : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent
to subjects covered by this paper.
|No. of Pages||10|
|PDF Size||1 MB|
UPSC Optional Geography Paper 1 And 2 Syllabus PDF Free Download