Types of Communication PDF

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What is Communication?

Communication styles change from person to person. During the process of communication, a person may invoke several channels or modes, or methods to convey a message. But, the process of communication doesn’t only depend on the source producing or relaying information.

It also equally depends on the communication method and the manner in which the receiver understands the message. Let us first understand the method by which we communicate.

Communication begins at a given point. The first step is the generation of information. The second step is to put this information or data into a medium for transmission to the intended audience. Three Simple Definitions

• Communication means sharing of information

• Communication is the giving and receiving of messages

• Communication is the transfer of information from one or more people to one or more other people.

Definition of Communication: Communication can broadly be defined as the exchange of ideas, messages, and information between two or more persons, through a medium, in a manner that the sender and the receiver understand the message, I.E., develop a common understanding of the message.

The word communication is derived from the Latin word ‘communicate’, which means to share, impart, participate, exchange, transmit, or make common.

It emphasizes sharing common information, ideas and messages. It is not merely issuing orders and instructions.

“Communication is the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver, with the information being understood by the receiver”. — Koontz and Weihrich “Communication is the art of developing and attaining understanding between people.

It is the process of exchanging information and feelings between two or more people and it is essential to effective management.”

Terry and Franklin “Communication is the sum of all things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.” — Allen Louis “Communication is the process by which people attempt to share meaning via the transmission of symbolic messages.” — Stoner and Wankel.

Types of Communication

Communication is of several types and may be classified as follows:

1. Verbal Communication: In verbal communication words and language are used to convey the message. Verbal communication is of two types:

(a) Oral communication: It means communication through spoken words. It may be face-to-face (lecture, seminar, conference, meeting, informal conversation, chit-chat, gossip, or telephone). A clear voice and tone are necessary for effective oral communication. Speaking at too fast/slow speed or two high/low volumes impairs oral communication:

(b) Written communication: Communication via SMS, e-mail, letter, brochure, handbook, or report is written communication.

Such communication is essential in the case of formal business interactions (memos, proposals, press releases, contracts, etc.) and legal documentation. Grammar, vocabulary, writing style, etc. determine the effectiveness of written communication.

Verbal communication is the easiest and fastest form of communication. Even then it constitutes a very small part (about 7 per cent) of all human interactions.

2. Non-Verbal Communication: Communication without using words is called non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication may take the following forms:

(a) Body Language: Communication through facial expressions, gestures, stance, touch and other physical signs is called body language.

For example, leaning forward may indicate interest and acceptance whereas leaning backwards may mean rejection and lack of interest.

Body language (e.g. smile, frown, clenching of hands etc. can transmit emotions which cannot be expressed through words. Body language constitutes a major part (about 55 per cent) of all communication.

(b) Paralanguage: Pitch, tone, quality, etc. of voice is known as paralanguage. The way one speaks, rather than words, reveals the intent of the speaker. Paralanguage constitutes about 38 per cent of all communications.

(c) Aesthetics: Music, dancing, painting sculpture and other forms of art serve as means of communication. These convey the feelings and thoughts of artists.

(d) Appearance: Dress and grooming create the first impression. In offices, there is a dress code. Formal dress for men may consist of shirt, trousers, coat and leather shoes. For women, it may consist of a saree, suit, shirt, trousers or skirt.

(e) Symbols: Symbols may relate to religion, status, ego, etc. These convey a special meaning. For example, the number of stars on the shirt of a police officer reveals his/her status.

3. Visual Communication: In visual communication, signs, drawing, graphic design, colour, illustration and other visual aids are used to convey the message.

For example, colours are used to control traffic. Visuals such as graphs, pie charts, flow charts, etc. convey considerable information in a clear and concise manner.

These are powerful mediums and are an essential part of official presentations.

4. Audio-Visual Communication: Use of voice and visuals together is called audio-visual communication. Radio is an audio medium while television and films are audio-visual media of communication. The combination of spoken words and pictures is a very powerful form of combination.

5. Formal Communication: Communication through the organisational hierarchy (chain of command) and in accordance with the policies, rules and conventions of the organization is called formal communication. It can be both oral and written. Formal communication can be in the following patterns:

(a) Vertical communication: The flow of information downwards and upwards in the organization is called vertical communication.

Managers pass down orders and instructions to their subordinates for implementation. Subordinates transmit reports, suggestions, grievances and requests to their superiors.

(b) Horizontal communication: Communication between individuals/departments at the same level of authority is known as horizontal communication. For example, heads of production and marketing departments hold a meeting to discuss the quality and price of a product.

(c) Diagonal Communication: This type of communication takes place between employees working in different departments and at different levels of authority.

Such cross-functional communication reduces the chances of distortion or misrepresentation. For example, the marketing manager may directly ask a factory manager about the cost and quality of output.

6. Informal Communication: When two or more employees in an organization exchange views without following the official rules and procedures it is called informal communication or grapevine.

Language English
No. of Pages118
PDF Size2 MB

Types of Communication PDF Free Download

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