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Chapter 3: Sub-titling
Many cities in India accurately mirror Friedrich Engels’ description of urban centres in nineteenth century England even today. “Streets that are generally unpaved, rough, dirty, filled with vegetable and animal refuse, without sewers or gutters but supplied with foul, stagnant pools instead,” wrote Engels on the living conditions of the working class in that country.
Urban Decay The depths of urban decay in India came to global notice during the pneumonic plague of 1994 in Surat; it epitomised the failure of governments in the post-Independence era and exposed development policies that ignored fundamental public health issues inherited from colonial rule.
There is little evidence to show that policymakers assimilated the lessons from the Surat public health disaster. State and municipal governments did not pursue reform in waste management, though civic conditions in Surat itself underwent change in the plague aftermath. During the past decade, many cities pursued development agendas—often with the help of massive international loans—to project ‘modernisation’ at the cost of basic civic reform.
There is thus a continuing challenge before the current mission to enable and also compel local governments to abide by the provisions of the Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules by which they are legally bound. Post-liberalisation policies have tended to largely disregard other key factors that affect the quality of life in cities and towns: poverty, lack of sanitation, water shortages, gross undersupply of affordable housing, and traffic chaos generated by automobile dependence, in turn created by neglect of public transport.
In the absence of a hygienic environment and safe water supply, chronic water-borne diseases such as cholera and other communicable diseases continue to stalk the poor in the biggest cities.
It must be sobering to the affluent layers of the population that nearly 14 million Indian households (forming 26 per cent of the total) in the urban areas do not have a latrine within the house, as per the Census of India 2001; some 14 per cent have only rudimentary ‘pit’ facilities. The number of households without a drainage connection stands at 11.8 million (representing 22.1 per cent of households).
Migration to cities continues and infrastructure to treat sewage is grossly inadequate to meet the demand even where it exists. It is unlikely that the quality of the urban environment can be dramatically improved therefore, if such fundamental questions remain unresolved. Urban transport receives scant attention from policymakers.
Policy distortions have led to rising automobile dependency, higher safety risks for road users, and land use plans that are based not on the needs of people, but primarily designed to facilitate use of private motorised vehicles. It comes as no surprise therefore that pedestrians and bicycle riders, who form 30 to 70 per cent of peak hour traffic in most urban centres, also make up a large proportion of fatalities in road accidents.
A paper prepared by the Transport Research and Injury Prevention Programme (TRIPP) of the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, says pedestrian fatalities in Mumbai and Delhi were nearly 78 per cent and 53 per cent of the total, according to recent data, compared to 13 per cent and 12 per cent in Germany and the United States.
Such alarming death rates — and an equally high injury rate — should persuade policymakers to revisit their urban planning strategies and correct the distortions. But many cities such as Chennai have actually done the reverse — reduced footpaths and areas for pedestrian use to facilitate unrestricted use of motorised vehicles.
The practice in progressive world cities has been different. Curitiba in Brazil, which has attracted global attention for innovative urban plans using low-cost technologies, has done everything that Indian policymakers would dread to do.
Starting in the 1970s, this provincial centre with the highest per capita ownership of cars in Brazil (other than the capital) at the time, banned automobiles from many crowded areas in favour of pedestrians, built an internationally acknowledged bus system that reduced household commuting expenditure to below the national average, and created new housing areas that were provided transport links in a planned manner. Some of the prestigious land development in the city.
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 English Chapter 3 Sub-titling
The purpose of subtitling is to convey the central theme of sections and subsections of a long piece of writing. It helps the reader know at a glance, the sub-topics that are being addressed. Giving suitable subtitles helps break the monotony of reading long passages.
Whenever you are reading a long piece of information, you get bored if it is monotonous. Giving subtitles to each paragraph or at least to each topic provides the readers with a better understanding and also builds interest. If the content is presented without any subtitles, it makes readers feel bored and reduces the impact of the information in the minds of the readers.
Subtitling is a crucial tool in writing any content and presenting it to the readers. It makes your written content attractive and gives a better view of the subject. It helps the readers to know the exact topics you have covered in the content. It will also help you to remember any content read as you can focus on the subtitles as crucial points. While studying, you can read the subtitles and try to recollect the content within. This way, things can be remembered easily.
From a reader’s point of view, reading any long content without subtitles might be annoying, and many times your content might be left half-read due to it seeming dull and dry. To make the content readable, you need to give suitable subtitles to each topic you are dealing with. This makes the readers interested in the topics and enhances the effectiveness of your content.
When answering for examination, you need to write in a very clear and precise way to score well. You need to be to the point while answering in your exams as the evaluator cannot read the entire answer in detail to award marks. You need to break your answers into sub-topics and give appropriate subtitles to make your answers precise. It helps the evaluator understand the points covered and award better marks.
NCERT Class 11 English Textbook Chapter 3 With Answer PDF Free Download