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Chapter 1: Resource and Development
Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’. The process of transformation of things available in our environment involves an interactive relationship between nature, technology and institutions.
Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development. Do you think that resources are free gifts of nature as is assumed by many? They are not. Resources are a function of human activities.
Human beings themselves are essential components of resources. They transform material available in our environment into resources and use them. These resources can be classified in the following ways – (a) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic (b) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable (c) On the basis of ownership – individual, community, national and international (d) On the basis of status of development – potential, developed stock and reserves.
On the Basis of Origin Biotic Resources: These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc. Abiotic Resources: All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources.
For example, rocks and metals. On the Basis of Exhaustibility Renewable Resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc.
The renewable resource may further be divided into continuous or flow (Fig.1.2). Non-Renewable Resources: These occur over a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use. On the Basis of Ownership Individual Resources:
These are also owned privately by individuals. Many farmers own land which is allotted to them by government against the payment of revenue. In villages there are people with land ownership but there are many who are landless. Urban people own plots, houses and other property. Plantation, pasture lands, ponds, water in wells etc. are some of the examples of resources ownership by individuals.
Make a list of resources owned by your household. Community Owned Resources: There are resources which are accessible to all the members of the community. Village commons (grazing grounds, burial grounds, village ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds in urban areas are de facto accessible to all the people living there. National Resources: Technically, all the resources belong to the nation.
The country has legal powers to acquire even private property for public good. You might have seen roads, canals, railways being constructed on fields owned by some individuals. Urban Development Authorities get empowered by the government to acquire land.
All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land within the political boundaries and oceanic area up to 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from the coast termed as territorial water and resources therein belong to the nation. International Resources: There are international institutions which regulate some resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the coastline of the country belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilise these without the concurrence of international institutions.
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Social Science Chapter 1 Resource and Development
1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following type of resource is iron ore?
(ii) Under which of the following type of resource tidal energy cannot be put?
(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
(a) Intensive cultivation
(c) Over irrigation
(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?
(b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
(v) In which of the following states black soil is predominantly found?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
3 states are
- Madhya Pradesh
The crop grown is cotton.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
The type of soil found in river deltas is Alluvial Soil.
- Very fertile, and therefore good for the cultivation of crops
- Consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay
- It has a good quantity of potash, lime and phosphoric acid, which is good for the growth of paddy and sugarcane.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
The main techniques that can be used are given below.
- Contour ploughing
- Terrace farming
- Strips of grass are allowed to grow between the crops. This method is known as strip cropping.
(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.
- These are resources that are obtained from the biosphere
- These resources have life
- Examples are plants, animals, fish, human beings, livestock etc.
- These resources are composed of non-living things
- Examples are water, minerals, metals, wind, solar energy etc.
NCERT Class 11 Social Science Textbook Chapter 1 With Answer PDF Free Download