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Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants Notes
- Reproduction is the production of young ones like parents.
- Essential Process related to continuity of species.
- To maintain continuity of life, organisms produce offspring showing similar
- TWo types – Asexual reproduction and Sexual reproduction.
- Fusion of two compatible gametes or sex cells is not involved.
- Production of genetically identical progeny, i. e. Clones.
- Progeny from a single organism.
- Inheritance of genes of a parent by progeny.
- Modes of Asexual Reproduction
• Multicellular organism
• Small piece
• Accidental breaking E.g. Algae Spirogyra.
• Unicellular organism
• One or more outgrowths, i.e. buds
• E.g. Yeast
(3) Spore formation
• Different types
• Flagellated motile zoospores
• Biftagellate zoospores. E.g. Chlamydomonas
Binary Fission E.g. Amoeba, Paramoecium
(5) Conidia formation
E.g. Fungus Penicillium
(6) Gemmule formation
- Vegetative reproduction :
• Asexual method
• Reproduction with vegetative plant parts.
• Artificial methods useful in agriculture and horticulture.
• New plants are identical to parent plant
- Artificial methods-
Small piece of plant part selected.
Must possess one or more bud.
• Stem cutting
e.g. Rose, Bougainvillea
• Leaf cutting
e.g. Sansev feria
• Root cutting
• Joining of two plant parts stock and scion
• Rooted plant — Stock
• Joined plant – Scion
• Grow together as one plant
o Stem grafting e.g. Apple
o Bud grafting, budding e.g. Rose
(3) Tissue Culture
• A small amount of plant tissue is carefully and aseptically grown to get
• Micropropagation — Modern method to get plants from tissue culture. e.g.
Sexual Reproduction1. Involves fusion of two compatible gametes (male and female).
- Takes place after certain maturity.
- In higher plants, flowering indicates the beginning of the reproductive phase.
- Production of genetically different offspring.
- Variations are useful for the survival and evolution of species.
- Flowers, specialized reproductive structure producing haploid gametes
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