Reproduction In Lower And Higher Plants Notes PDF

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Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants Notes


  1. Reproduction is the production of young ones like parents.
  2. Essential Process related to continuity of species.
  3. To maintain continuity of life, organisms produce offspring showing similar
  4. TWo types – Asexual reproduction and Sexual reproduction.
    Asexual reproduction
  5. Fusion of two compatible gametes or sex cells is not involved.
  6. Production of genetically identical progeny, i. e. Clones.
  7. Progeny from a single organism.
  8. Inheritance of genes of a parent by progeny.
  9. Modes of Asexual Reproduction
    (1) Fragmentation
    • Multicellular organism
    • Small piece
    • Accidental breaking E.g. Algae Spirogyra.
    (2) Budding
    • Unicellular organism
    • One or more outgrowths, i.e. buds
    • E.g. Yeast
    (3) Spore formation
    • Different types
    • Flagellated motile zoospores
    • Zoosporangia
    • Biftagellate zoospores. E.g. Chlamydomonas

(4) Fission
Binary Fission E.g. Amoeba, Paramoecium
(5) Conidia formation
E.g. Fungus Penicillium
(6) Gemmule formation
E.g. Sponges

  1. Vegetative reproduction :
    • Asexual method
    • Reproduction with vegetative plant parts.
    • Artificial methods useful in agriculture and horticulture.
    • New plants are identical to parent plant
  2. Artificial methods-
    (1) Cutting
    Small piece of plant part selected.
    Must possess one or more bud.
    • Stem cutting
    e.g. Rose, Bougainvillea
    • Leaf cutting
    e.g. Sansev feria
    • Root cutting
    e.g. Blackberry
    (2) Grafting
    • Joining of two plant parts stock and scion
    • Rooted plant — Stock
    • Joined plant – Scion
    • Grow together as one plant
    o Stem grafting e.g. Apple
    o Bud grafting, budding e.g. Rose

(3) Tissue Culture
• A small amount of plant tissue is carefully and aseptically grown to get
• Micropropagation — Modern method to get plants from tissue culture. e.g.
Sexual Reproduction1. Involves fusion of two compatible gametes (male and female).

  1. Takes place after certain maturity.
  2. In higher plants, flowering indicates the beginning of the reproductive phase.
  3. Production of genetically different offspring.
  4. Variations are useful for the survival and evolution of species.
  5. Flowers, specialized reproductive structure producing haploid gametes
Language English
No. of Pages7
PDF Size0.3 MB

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