‘NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 Power Sharing‘ PDF Quick download link is given at the bottom of this article. You can see the PDF demo, size of the PDF, page numbers, and direct download Free PDF of ‘Ncert Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 Exercise Solution’ using the download button.
Popular Struggles and Movements Book PDF Free Download
Chapter 5: Popular Struggles and Movements
Do you remember the story of the triumph of democracy in Poland? We studied it last year in the first chapter of class IX. The story reminded us about the role played by the people in the making of democracy. Let us read two recent stories of that kind and see how power is exercised in democracy.
Movement for democracy in Nepal Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement in April 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy. Nepal, you might recall, was one of the ‘third wave’ countries that had won democracy in 1990. Although the king formally remained the head of the state, the real power was exercised by popularly elected representatives.
King Birendra, who has accepted this transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy, was killed in a mysterious massacre of the royal family in 2001. King Gyanendra, the new king of Nepal, was not prepared to accept democratic rule. He took advantage of the weakness and unpopularity of the democratically elected government.
In February 2005, the king dismissed the then Prime Minister and dissolved the popularly elected Parliament. The movement of April 2006 was aimed at regaining popular control over the government from the king All the major political parties in the parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and called for a four-day strike in Kathmandu, the country’s capital.
This protest soon turned into an indefinite strike in which MAOIST insurgents and various other organisations joined hands. People defied curfew and took to the streets. The security forces found themselves unable to take on more than a lakh people who gathered almost every day to demand restoration of democracy.
The number of protesters reached between three and five lakhs on 21 April and they served an ultimatum to the king. The leaders of the movement rejected the halfhearted concessions made by the king. They stuck to their demands for Maoists: Those communists who believe in the ideology of Mao, the leader of the Chinese Revolution.
They seek to overthrow the government through an armed revolution so as to establish the rule of the peasants and workers. restoration of parliament, power to an all-party government and a new constituent assembly. On 24 April 2006, the last day of the ultimatum, the king was forced to concede all the three demands.
The SPA chose Girija Prasad Koirala as the new Prime Minister of the interim government. The restored parliament met and passed laws taking away most of the powers of the king. The SPA and the Maoists came to an understanding about how the new Constituent Assembly was going to be elected. This struggle came to be known as Nepal’s second movement for democracy.
The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world. The story of Poland and that of Nepal apply to the struggle for establishing or restoring democracy. But the role of popular struggles does not come to an end with the establishment of democracy.
People’s successful struggle against privatisation of water in Bolivia reminds us that popular struggles are integral to the working of democracy. Bolivia is a poor country in Latin America. The World Bank pressurised the government to give up its control of municipal water supply.
The government sold these rights for the city of Cochabamba to a multi-national company (MNC). The company immediately increased the price of water by four times. Many people received monthly water bill of Rs 1000 in a country where average income is around Rs 5000 a month. This led to a spontaneous popular protest
|No. of Pages||14|
|PDF Size||1.5 MB|
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Social Science Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements
1. In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?
Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in the following ways:
- They attempt to influence government policies
- They gain public support and sympathy for a cause
- They carry out protests, campaigns and exhibitions to gather people
- They lobby together to alter a decision
2. Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties?
The relationship between political parties and pressure groups can take different forms:
- Some pressure groups can have political ministers as their leaders. The ministers from one party could try to affect the policies of another party by forming a pressure group.
- Political parties participate in trade unions and students’ unions, either as a host or by mobilising support for such unions to fight against their rival parties.
- Movements for a cause can end up being a pressure group in various cases. An example of such a pressure group would be the Assam students movement that later became Asom Gana Parishad.
- They have an indirect relationship too, where they are in dialogue and negotiation.
3. Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.
The activities led by the pressure groups can push the government to rethink on the policies and acts proposed by them for the country. Depending on the demands put forward by the pressure groups, they can make a positive change in the country. Their activities, like campaigns or protests, can bring attention to the wrongful acts of the government, which otherwise remain behind the curtains. These pressure groups can help bring awareness to the citizens of the governmental activities, and hence, the political parties have to act in a responsible manner.
NCERT Class 11 Social Science Textbook Chapter 5 With Answer PDF Free Download