The Republic Book PDF By Plato In English

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 Thrasymachus is pacified, but the intrepid Glaucon insists on continuing the argument.

He is not satisfied with the indirect manner in which, at the end of the last book, Socrates had disposed of the question ‘Whether the just or the unjust is the happier.’

He begins by dividing goods into three classes:—first, goods desirable in themselves; secondly, goods desirable in themselves and for their results; thirdly, goods desirable for their results only.

He then asks Socrates in which of the three classes he would place justice.

In the second class, replies Socrates, among goods desirable for themselves and also for their results.

‘Then the world, in general, are of another mind, for they say that justice belongs to the troublesome class of goods which are desirable for their results only.

Socrates answers that this is the doctrine of Thrasymachus which he rejects.

Glaucon thinks that Thrasymachus was too ready to listen to the voice of the charmer, and proposes to consider the nature of justice and injustice in themselves and apart from the results and rewards of them which the world is always dinning in his ears.

He will, first of all, speak of the nature and origin of justice; secondly, of the manner in which men view justice as a necessity and not a good; and thirdly, he will prove the reasonableness of this view.

‘To do injustice is said to be good; to suffer injustice an evil. As the evil is discovered by experience to be greater than the good, the sufferers, who cannot also be doers, make a compact that they will have neither, and this compact or mean is called justice but is really the impossibility of doing injustice.

No one would observe such a compact if he were not obliged.

Let us suppose that the just and unjust have two rings, like that of Gyges in the well-known story, which makes them invisible, and then no difference will appear in them, for everyone will do evil if he can.

Language English
No. of Pages535
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