Net CSIR Life Science Syllabus PDF

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CSIR NET Life Science SyllabusPDF Free Download

Net CSIR Life Science Syllabus PDF

CSIR NET Life Science Syllabus PDF

Unit -1 Molecules & Their Interaction Relevant to Biology

i) Metabolism of  Vitamins, Nucleotides, Amino acids, Lipids, Carbohydrates.

ii) Stability of Proteins & Nucleic Acids.

iii) Conformation of Nucleic Acids.

iv) Conformation of Proteins

v) Principles of Isozymes, Mechanism of Enzyme Catalysis, Enzyme Regulation, Enzyme & Enzyme Kinetics, Catalysis.

vi) Biological Energy Transducers, Group Transfer, Coupled Reaction, Oxidative Phosphorylation, Glycolysis, Bioenergetics.

vii) Principles of Biophysical Chemistry

viii) Stabilizing Interactions

ix) Function, Structure & Composition of Biomolecules

x) Structure of Chemical Bonds, Molecules & Atoms.

Unit 2 – Cellular Organization

  i) Microbial Physiology: Stress response, strategies of cell division, growth characteristics & yield.

  ii) Cell Division & Cell Cycle: Control & regulation of cell cycle, steps in cell cycle, meiosis & mitosis & their regulation.

  iii) Organization of Genes & Chromosomes: Transposons, euchromatin, heterochromatin, the structure of chromosomes & chromatin, gene families, interrupted genes, repetitive & unique DNA, operon.

  iv) Structural Organization & Function of Intracellular Organelles: Function & structure of cytoskeleton & its role in motility, chloroplast, vacuoles, plastids, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, Golgi bodies, mitochondria, nucleus, cell wall.

  v) Membrane Structure & Function: Electrical properties of membranes, regulation of intracellular transport, mechanism of sorting, membrane pumps, active transport, ion channels, osmosis, membrane & lipid bilayer protein diffusion, the structure of the model membrane.

Unit 3 – Fundamental Process

  i) Control of Gene Expression At Transcription & Translation Level: Chromatin’s role in gene silencing & expression, regulating the expression of eukaryotic & prokaryotic, viruses, and phage genes.

  ii) Protein Synthesis & Processing: Post-translational modification of proteins, translational inhibitors, translational proof-reading, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, tRNA-identity, aminoacylation of tRNA, genetic code, termination, elongation factors, initiation factors & regulation, initiation complex formation, the ribosome.

  iii) RNA Synthesis & Processing: Function & structure of various kinds of RNA transport & RNA, polyadenylation, splicing, RNA editing, RNA processing, termination, elongation, capping, RNA polymerases, transcription repressor & activator, the formation of initiation complex, transcription machinery & factors.

  iv)DNA Replication, Repair & Recombination: Site-specific & homologous recombination, DNA repair mechanisms, extrachromosomal replicons, fidelity of replication, replication fork and origin, enzymes involved, unit of replication.

Unit 4 – Cell Communication & Signaling

  i) Innate & Adaptive Immune System: Vaccines, acquired & congenital immunodeficiencies, immune response during viral, parasitic &  bacterial infections, autoimmunity & hypersensitivity, inflammations, cell-mediated effector functions, toll-like receptors, complement system, secondary & primary immune modulation, cell-mediated & humoral immune response, T& B cell receptors, differentiation & activation of B7 T cells, antigen presentation & processing, MHC molecules, antigen-antibody reactions, antibody engineering, monoclonal antibodies, generation of antibody diversity, function & structure of antibody molecules, T & B cell epitopes, immunogenicity & antigenicity, antigens, molecules & cells involved in adaptive & innate immunity.

  ii) Cancer: Treatment of uncontrolled cell growth, apoptosis, the interaction of normal & cancer cells, metastasis, virus-induced cancer, cell cycle & cancer, tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, genetic rearrangements within progenitor cells.

  iii) Cellular communication: Neurotransmission & its regulation, integrins, extracellular matrix, gap junctions, roles of cell adhesion molecules and types, the general principle of cell communication, hematopoiesis regulation.

  iv) Cell Signaling: Quorum sensing, bacterial chemotaxis, light signaling in plants, plant & bacterial two-component systems, regulation of signaling pathways, second messengers, signal transduction pathways, G-protein couple receptors mediated signaling, cell surface receptors, hormones & their receptors.

  v) Host-Parasite Interaction: Cell-cell fusion in both abnormal & normal cells, pathogen-induced diseases in plants & animals, modification of host cell behavior with pathogens,  entry & recognition of various pathogens such as viruses & bacteria into plant & animal host cells.

Unit 5 – Developmental Biology

  i) Programmed Senescence, Aging & Cell Death.

  ii) Morphogenesis & Organogenesis In Plants: 

Floral & meristem development in Antirrhinum & Arabidopsis, the transition to flowering, phyllotaxy & leaf development, root & shoot development, organization of root & shoot apical meristem.

  iii) Morphogenesis & Organogenesis In Animals: 

Sex determination, environmental regulation of the normal development, post-embryonic development- metamorphosis, larval formation, differentiation of neurons, organogenesis- limb regeneration & development in vertebrates, eye lens induction, vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans, pattern & axes formation in chick, amphibian, and Drosophila, cell differentiation & aggregation in Dictyostelium.

  iv) Gametogenesis, Fertilization & Early Development: 

Seed germination & formation, the establishment of symmetry in plants, embryogenesis, germ layer formation & gastrulation in animals, embryonic fields, blastula formation, cleavage, zygote formation, double fertilization & embryo sac development in plants, cell surface compound in the sperm-egg recognition in animals, production of gametes.

  v) Basic Concepts of Development: Transgenics & mutants in the analysis of development, imprinting, cytoplasmic determinants & genomic equivalence, stem cells, cell lineages & fate, morphogenetic gradients, differentiation & determination, competence, induction, specification, commitment, potency.

Unit 6 – System Physiology-Plant

  i) Stress Physiology: Plant responses to abiotic & biotic stresses.

  ii) Secondary metabolites: Biosynthesis of nitrogenous compounds, phenols, and terpenes & their roles.

  iii) Solute Transport & Photoassimilate Translocation: Mechanisms of unloading & loading of photoassimilates, transpiration, translocation, transport & uptake of macromolecules, solutes & ions via phloem & xylem, across membranes, and through cells.

  iv) Sensory Photobiology: Biological clocks, photoperiodism, stomatal movement,  mechanism of action, function & structure of phytochromes, phototropin & cryptochromes.

v) Plant Hormones: Mechanism of action & physiological effects, transport & breakdown, storage, biosynthesis.

  vi) Nitrogen Metabolism: Amino acid biosynthesis, ammonium & nitrate assimilation.

  vii) Respiration & Photorespiration: Photo respiratory pathway, alternate oxidase, ATP synthesis & plant mitochondrial electron transport, citric acid cycle.

  viii) Photosynthesis: CO2 fixation-CAM, C4, and C3 pathways, photoprotective mechanisms, mechanisms of electron transport, light-harvesting complexes.

Unit 7 – System Physiology-Animal

  i) Reproduction & Endocrinology: Neuroendocrine regulation, ovulation, gametogenesis, reproductive processes, diseases & hormones, the fundamental mechanism of hormone action, endocrine glands.

  ii) Digestive System: BMR, energy balance, absorption, digestion

  iii) Adaptation & Stress

  iv) Thermoregulation: acclimatization, neural, chemical & physical regulation.

  v) Excretory System: Aid-base balance, electrolyte balance, blood pressure, blood volume, regulation of water balance, micturition, waste elimination, urine concentration.

  vi) Sense Organs: Tactile response, hearing, and vision.

  vii) Nervous System: Neural control of posture & muscle tone, peripheral & central NS, gross neuroanatomy of spinal cord & brain, action potential, neurons.

  viii) Respiratory System: Chemical & neural respiration regulation, waste elimination, gas exchange, gas transport, anatomical considerations, comparison of respiration in distinct species.

  ix) Cardiovascular System: Chemical & neural regulation, blood pressure, heart as a pump, cardiac cycle, ECG- its significance & principles, specialized tissue, myogenic heart, comparative anatomy of the heart structure.

  x) Blood & circulation: Hemostasis, immunity, hemoglobin, blood groups, blood volume regulation, blood volume, plasma function, formed elements & hemopoiesis, blood corpuscles.

 Unit 8 – Inheritance Biology

  i)  Recombination: Non-homologous & homologous recombination

  ii) Numerical & Structural Alterations of Chromosomes: Ploidy & their genetic implications, translocation, inversion, duplication, and deletion.

  iii) Mutation: Insertional mutagenesis, somatic versus germinal mutants, the gain & loss of function, biochemical,  conditional, and lethal, detection, causes.

  iv) Quantitative Genetics: QTL mapping, heritability & its measurements, polygenic inheritance.

  v) Human Genetics: Genetic disorders, karyotypes, LOD score for linkage testing, pedigree analysis.

  vi) Microbial genetics: Genetic transfer methods: Fine structure analysis of genes, interrupted mating mediated gene mapping, sex-duction & transduction, conjugation, transformation.

vii) Extra Chromosomal Inheritance: Maternal inheritance, the inheritance of chloroplast & mitochondrial genes.

 viii) Gene Mapping Methods: Plant population mapping development, somatic cell hybrid mediated mapping, molecular markers mediated mapping, tetrad analysis, linkage maps.

 ix) Extensions of Mendelian Principles: Sex influenced & limited characters, sex linkage, crossing over & linkage, phenocopy, expressivity & penetrance, genomic imprinting, pleiotropy, gene interactions, incomplete dominance, codominance.

 x) Concept of Gene: Complementation tests, pseudoallele, multiple alleles, allele.

 xi) Mendelian Principles: Independent assortment, segregation, dominance.

Unit 9 – Diversity of Life Forms

  i) Organisms of Conservation Concern: Conservation strategies, endangered & rare species.

  ii) Organisms of Agricultural & Health Importance: Common pathogen and parasites of crops, domestic animals, and humans.

  iii) Natural History of Indian Subcontinent: Phenology & seasonality of subcontinent, common Indian mammals, migrations of species, geographic origins, major types of habitat in the subcontinent.

  iv) Outline Classification of Microbes, Animals & Plants: Evolutionary relationships within taxa, classification of microbes, animals, and plants, important criteria employed for categorization in each taxon.

  v)Levels of Structural Organization: Adaptive modifications, adaptive radiation, comparative anatomy, organization levels of systems, organs & tissues, multicellular, colonial & unicellular forms.

  vi) Principles & Methods of Taxonomy: Quantitative & classical methods of the taxonomy of microbes, animals, and plants, biological nomenclature, hierarchical taxa & concepts of species.

Unit 10 – Ecological Principles

  i) Conservation Biology: Management strategy/Indian conservation case studies, major management approaches, conservation principles

  ii) Applied Ecology: Biodiversity management methods, major biodiversity changing aspects, Biodiversity-documentation; monitoring & status, global environmental change, environmental pollution.

  iii) Biogeography: Biogeographical zones in India, island biogeography theory, major terrestrial biomes.

iv) Ecosystem Ecology: Function & structure of few Indian ecosystems: aquatic & terrestrial, decomposition & primary production, mineral cycling & energy flow, ecosystem function & structure.

  v) Ecological Succession: the concept of climax, alteration in succession, mechanism, types.

  vi) Community Ecology: Ecotones & edges, species diversity levels & its measurements, community attributes & structure, nature of communities.

  vii) Species Interactions: Symbiosis, pollination, carnivory, herbivory, interspecific competition, interaction types.

  viii) Population Ecology: Age structure populations, interdemic extinctions, metapopulation concept- dispersal & demes, life history strategies, population regulation, population growth curves, population characteristics.

ix) Habitat and Niche: Character displacement, resource partitioning, realized & fundamental niche, overlap & niche width, the concept of niche & habitat.

  x) The Environment: Abiotic & biotic interactions, biotic environment, physical environment.

 Unit 11 – Evolution & Behaviour

  i) Evolution, Behaviour & Brain: 

Behavioral & domestication changes, navigation & orientation, optimality & habitat selection in foraging, aggressive behavior, parental care, reproductive success & parental investment, mating systems, use of territoriality & space, social dominance, social communication, behavior development, biological clocks, arousal & sleep, cognition, memory, the neural basis of learning, evolution & altruism-reciprocal altruism, kin selection, and group selection, ultimate & proximate causation, methods & approaches in behavior study.

  ii) Mechanisms: Co-evolution, sexual selection, convergent evolution, sympatric & allopatric, speciation, isolating mechanisms, adaptive radiation, random genetic drift & migration, natural selection mediated gene frequency change concepts and rates, Hardy-Weinberg Law, gene frequency, gene pool, populations.

  iii) Molecular Evolution: gene divergence & duplication, the origin of new proteins & genes, nucleotide & protein sequence analysis, molecular tools in identification; classification & phylogeny, molecular clocks & divergence, neutral evolution concepts.

iv) Evolutionary History & Paleontology: Primate evolution stages, major groups of animals & plants, origins of multicellular & unicellular organisms, major occurrences in the evolutionary period, epoch, periods & eras, evolutionary time scale.

  v) Origins of Unicellular & Cellular Evolution: aerobic & anaerobic metabolism, photosynthesis, the evolution of unicellular eukaryotes, the origin of eukaryotic cells, the evolution of prokaryotes, the first cell, Miller’s experiment, Haldane & Oparin’s concept, abiotic synthesis of organic polymers and monomers, the origin of fundamental biomolecules.

  vi) Emergence of Evolutionary Thoughts: The evolutionary synthesis, spontaneity of mutations, Mendelism, natural selection & fitness, struggle, adaptation, Variation in Darwin’s & Lamarck’s concepts.

Unit 12 – Applied Biology

i) Biosensors

ii) Phytoremediation & Bioremediation

iii) Biodiversity Uses & Bioresources

iv) Breeding in Animals & Plants like Marker-Assisted Selection

v) Genomics & its Applications in Agriculture & Health like Gene Therapy

vi)  Molecular Approached to Identify Strain & Diagnose, transgenic plants & animals

vii) Cell & Tissue Culture Methods for Animals & Plants, Application of diagnostics, vaccines, immunological principles

viii) Production of macro & small molecules and microbial fermentation

Unit 13 – Methods in Biology

  i) Methods in Field Biology: 

Habitual characterization: remote & ground sensing methods, sampling methods within the behavior study, ranging patterns- remote; indirect; and direct observations, and population density estimation methods of plants & animals.

  ii) Electrophysiological Methods: 

CAT, fMRI, MRI, PET, pharmacological testing, brain stimulation & lesions, brain activity recording, ECG, patch-clamp recording, and single-neutron recording.

 iii) Microscopic Techniques: 

Microscopical image processing methods, freeze-fracture & freeze-etch EM methods, EM staining & fixation techniques, transmission & scanning microscopes, living cell microscopy, resolving powers of various microscopes, and subcellular and cellular component visualization with light microscopy.

  iv) Radiolabeling Techniques: 

Safety guidelines, radioactive material’s molecular imaging, the addition of radioisotopes within biological cells & tissues, and measurement & detection of various kinds of radioisotopes commonly employed in biology.

  v) Statistical Methods: 

Basic introduction to multivariate statistics, X2 test, analysis of variance, t-test, correlation & regression, levels of significance, errors, confidence interval, comparison of parametric & non-parametric statistics, sampling distribution, probability distributions, measures of dispersal & central tendency, and so on.

  vi) Biophysical Method: 

Surface plasma resonance methods, mass spectrometry types, light scattering mediated molecular analysis, NMR & X-Ray diffraction mediated molecular structure determination, ESR, NMR, circular dichroism, fluorescence, UV/visible spectroscopy mediated molecular analysis.

  vii) Immuno & Histochemical Techniques: 

GISH & FISH based in situ localization, detection of molecules within living cells, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, western blot, RIA, and ELISA based molecule detection, and antibody generation.

viii) Recombinant DNA & Molecular Biology Methods: 

Isolation & analysis of lipid & carbohydrate molecules-AFLP, RAPD, and RFLP techniques, large scale expression- microarray-based techniques, gene expression analysis at protein & RNA level, strategies of genome sequencing, DNA sequencing methods, protein’s post-translational modification detection, protein sequencing methods,  eukaryotic & bacterial gene knock-out, in vitro deletion & mutagenesis techniques, BAC & YAC, cosmid, phage, and plasmid vector-mediated generation of cDNA and genomic libraries, specific nucleic acid sequence isolation, plant, animal, and bacterial vector-based recombinant protein expression, eukaryotic & bacterial molecular cloning of RNA or DNA fragments, isoelectric focusing gels, 2 and 1-D gel electrophoresis-based protein, DNA, and RNA analysis, separation methods for protein, DNA (plasmid & genomic), and RNA.

Language English
No. of Pages11
PDF Size2 MB

Net CSIR Life Science Syllabus PDF Free Download

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