Fundamental Of Computer And Information Technology PDF

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The mouse is a pointing device. The mouse is used to control and manipulate cursor movement on the monitor.

The mouse usually has three or four buttons on it and a rollerball that signals the movements made by the mouse on a flat surface.

These movements are transferred to the system. The mouse is rolled on a flat surface by the user.

It can be used independently, but normally it is used in conjunction with the keyboard to improve the efficiency of the input operation.

The mouse can be used to select data. Also, the mouse makes it possible to move fast from one part of the screen to the other.

The various types of mouse in use are

  • Mechanical mouse
  • Optical mouse
  • Opt mechanical mouse

Light Pen

The light pen is a picking device. The light pen contains a photocell placed in a small tube. This photo-cell detects the presence of light on the CRT (monitor).

The tip of the pen is moved on the surface of the screen to write or sketch data. The light pen is especially useful in Computer-Aided Design (CAD) applications.

Joy Stick

The position and speed with which the joystick is moved are converted into digital signals by the use of a lever.

These signals are then sent to the computer system. This in turn controls the movement of the cursor on the screen. The joystick is mainly used in video games applications.

Track Ball

The trackball uses a hard-sphere to control cursor movement. The bail can be rotated in any
direction by hand and this is translated into a digital signal to control the cursor movement on the screen.

The set of instructions given to the computer to perform various operations is called as the computer program.

The process of converting the input data into the required output form with the help of the computer program is called as data processing.

The computers are therefore also referred to as data processors Therefore a computer can now be defined as a fast and accurate data processing system that accepts data, performs various operations on the data, has the capability to store the data and produce the results on the basis of detailed step by step instructions given to it..

The terms hardware and software are almost always used in connection with the computer.

The Hardware:

The hardware is the machinery itself. It is made up of the physical parts or devices of the computer system like the electronic Integrated Circuits (ICs), magnetic storage media and other mechanical devices like input devices, output
devices etc.

All these various hardware are linked together to form an effective functional unit.

The various types of hardware used in the computers, has evolved from vacuum tubes of the first generation to Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuits of the present generation.

The Software:

The computer hardware itself is not capable of doing anything on its own. It has to be given explicit instructions to perform the specific task.

The computer program is the one which controls the processing activities of the computer. The computer thus functions according to the instructions written in the program.

Software mainly consists of these computer programs, procedures and other documentation used in the operation of a computer system.

Software is a collection of programs which utilize and enhance the capability of the hardware

Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician invented the first mechanical machine, a rectangular brass box, called Pascaline which could perform addition and subtraction on whole numbers.

This was in the seventeenth century. Colmar, a Frenchman invented a machine that could perform the four basic arithmetic functions of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Colmar’s mechanical calculator, “Arithmometer”, presented a more practical approach to computing.

With its enhanced versatility, the “Arithmometer” was widely used until the First World War, although later inventors refined Colmar’s calculator, together with fellow inventors, Pascal and Leibniz, he helped define the age of mechanical computation.

Charles Babbage a British mathematician at Cambridge University invented the first analytical engine or difference engine.

This machine could be programmed by instructions coded on punch cards and had mechanical memory to
store the results.

For his contributions in this field Charles Babbage is known as ‘the father of modern digital computer.

Some of the early computers included:

Mark I This was the first fully automatic calculating machine. It was designed by Howard Aiken of Harvard University in collaboration with IBM. This machine was an electronic relay computer.

Electromagnetic signals were used for the movement of mechanical parts. Mark I could perform the basic arithmetic and complex equations.

Although this machine was extremely reliable, it was very slow (it took about 3-5 seconds per calculation) and was complex in design and large in size.

Atanasoff-Berry Computer(ABC) – This computer developed by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry was the world’s
first general purpose electronic digital computer. It made use of vacuum tubes for internal logic and capacitors for storage.

ENIAC (Electronic Numeric Integrator and Calculator) The first all electronic computer was produced by a partnership between the US Government and the University of Pennsylvania.

It was built using 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 1,500 relays and consumed 160 kilowatts of electrical power. The ENIAC computed at speed about thousand times faster than Mark I.

However, it could store and manipulate only a limited amount of data. Program modifications and detecting errors were also difficult.

Language English
No. of Pages109
PDF Size8.7 MB

Fundamental of Computer and Information Technology Book PDF Free Download

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