Class 12 Physics Investigatory Project PDF

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Physics investigatory project class 12th PDF Free Download


Class 12 Physics Investigatory Project

Investigations are more open-ended than practical exercises involving a search to understand the unknown and begin with a question or a hypothesis. You are not instructed exactly what to do but are given only general guidance. These give you more opportunities to plan your work.

For example, you might investigate what traits you and your classmates inherit from your parents and forefathers (both maternal and paternal)

Projects are even more open-ended than investigations. These are practical investigations carried out by an individual or a group of students. Projects are largely your own initiative. It also requires evaluation of your findings, redefining ideas, and designing further investigations.

This may lead to evidence that enables answering the question posed at the outset. Some of these projects would take about a few hours to complete. Others may take a few weeks.

Some are laboratory-based, and others involve fieldwork. Many could be carried out at home. Investigatory projects are part of an obligatory assignment involving purely experimental procedures so that you report on, duplicate, or adapt something that someone else has already discovered.

It may involve some other form of investigation also. For example, you may undertake to investigate the richness and patterns of biodiversity (flora and fauna) in your school campus and prepare a mural of it or investigate the effects of physical fitness on your pulse rate.

Choosing an Investigatory Project

You may be guided by your teacher regarding your choice of topic. The more original or new the project is, the better it would be. But it must be realistic in terms of the time available and at a level attained in higher secondary biology.
You must review the available literature to find out what type of work has been done.

This will help you to reject some of the alternatives, and possibly cause you to modify others. It may also be the source of new ideas. By doing these investigatory projects you will gain experience in research besides providing opportunities for learning skills such as photography, electronics, etc.

Identifying the Objectives of the Project

Having identified a possible project, you should be able to identify and list the tentative objectives you hope to attain by completing that investigation. For example

Suppose your project involves studying the biodiversity of birds in your district/state, examine the data in the light of some questions (say, how do the birds in Rajasthan differ from those in Assam or Bihar?) your investigation might attempt to answer.

Suppose your project involves investigating leaf mosaics revealing the complexity of the growth correlations that lead to an efficient light interception, suggest also the factors that might affect this type of study.

Keep the aim of your project simple. Investigate only one factor at a time and never allow yourself to be side-tracked. Remember that time may be too short for follow-up and any fascinating secondary aspects that you may come across.

Designing Projects

Having established the objectives of your chosen project, you must have an experimental design. This will allow you to collect the data you need in a scientific way to test the hypothesis. For example, if your project involves investigating the hypothesis that stale milk contains more bacteria than fresh milk, devise the procedure you would adopt to carry out your investigation.

Planning Investigations

Having decided on your topic for scientific investigation, you should give careful thought to the plan of your investigation in some detail. These may include
¨ What hypothesis can you make?
¨ How can you ensure that the experimental tests and measurements you carry out are accurate and reliable?
¨ What controls do you need?

  • How many variables are you investigating? Correctly identify key variables as independent and dependent.
  • ¨ Are your variables discrete or continuous?
    ¨ Identify appropriate control variables for a fair test.
    ¨ How many repeat observations or samples will you require?
    ¨ What instruments/equipment or techniques will you use to obtain relevant
    information? Identify suitable materials and equipment to be used.
    ¨ If your investigation requires the use of a questionnaire, design and
    standardize before implementation.
    ¨ Is your intended procedure safe and ethically permitted, i.e., taking care of
    the distress or suffering of living organisms and damage to the environment?
    ¨ How will you collect your data?
Language English
No. of Pages15
PDF Size1 MB

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