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Use of Statistical Tools Book PDF Free Download
Chapter 9: Use of Statistical Tools
You have studied about the various statistical tools. These tools are important for us in daily life and are used in the analysis of data pertaining to economic activities such as production, consumption, distribution, banking and insurance, trade, transport, etc. In this chapter, you will learn the method of developing a project.
This will help in understanding how statistical tools and methods can be used for various types of analysis. For example, you may have to collect information about a product from the consumer or about a new product or service to be launched in the market by the producer or analyse the spread of information technology in schools and so on.
Developing a project by conducting a survey and preparing a report will help in analysing relevant information and suggesting improvements in a product or system. Steps Towards Making a Project Identifying a problem or an area of study At the outset, you should be clear about what you want to study. On the basis of your objective, you will proceed with the collection and processing of the data.
For example, production or sale of a product like car, mobile phone, shoe polish, bathing soap or a detergent, may be an area of interest to you. You may like to address certain water or electricity problems relating to households of a particular area. You may like to study about consumer awareness among households, i.e., awareness about rights of consumers.
Choice of Target Group The choice or identification of the target group is important for framing appropriate questions for your questionnaire. If your project relates to cars, then your target group will mainly be the middle income and the higher income groups. For the project studies relating to consumer products like soap, you will target all rural and urban consumers.
For the availability of safe drinking water your target group can be both urban and rural population. Therefore, the choice of target groups, to identify those persons on whom you focus your attention, is very important while preparing the project report.
Collection of Data The objective of the survey will help you to determine whether the data collection should be undertaken by using primary method, secondary method or both the methods. As you have read in Chapter 2, a first hand collection of data by using primary method can be done by using a questionnaire or an interview schedule, which may be obtained by personal interviews, mailing/postal surveys, phone, email, etc.
Postal questionnaire must have a covering letter giving details about the purpose of inquiry. Your objective will be to determine the size and characteristics of your target group. For example, in a study pertaining to the primary and secondary level female literacy or consumption of a particular brand or soap, you will have to go to each and every family or household to collect the information i.e. you have to collect primary data.
If sampling is used in your method of data collection, then care has to be taken about the suitability of the method of sampling. Secondary data can also be used provided it suits your requirement. Secondary data are usually used when there is paucity of time, money and manpower resources and the information is easily available.
Organisation and Presentation of Data After collecting the data, you need to process the information so received, by organizing and presenting them with the help of tabulation and suitable diagrams, e.g. bar diagrams, pie diagrams, etc. about which you have studied in chapter 3 and 4.
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Statistics Chapter 9 Use of Statistical Tools
1. What is statistics? Explain its importance?
Statistics is a branch of mathematics that has several quantified tools, methods, representations to find values by taking huge data and it helps to forecast the outcomes. We have various kinds of tools like:
- Regression analysis
- Analysis of variance
All these are utilized at various steps to perform tasks in different industries.
2. If you are supposed to start a dairy business, consider it as a project, and explain the steps involved in it?
First, we need to forecast the amount of milk that we need to sell per month or an annum. For that purpose, we need to consider the available resources like capital, number of cows or buffaloes through which we can get the milk, and how far they are able to give the milk that can be measured in liters.
Then we need to search for the customers by surveying the people regarding their utilization based on the family size of each house. Then represent all the data in a tabular form and estimate the results by calculating the average or mean for the data. Now we can observe the findings like if the requirement is 80 liters, we need to produce 100 liters of milk and the expenses may be 1 lakh rupees, and the earnings may come to 120,000 rupees wherein the profit is 20,000 per month if everything goes well.
NCERT Class 11 Statistics Textbook Chapter 9 With Answer PDF Free Download