UPSC IAS Mains Solved Question Paper PDF Free Download
Mains Solved Question Example
Q.1 “Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)”. Comment on the progress made in India in this regard. Hints: Energy is the golden thread that connects economic growth, social equity, and environmental sustainability. It generates a consistent stream of power to meet basic human needs, maintain and improve social functioning, and advance living standards. Validating the same, SDG-7 commits affordable and clean energy for all.
Achieving the goal To expand energy access, it is crucial to enhance energy efficiency and to invest in renewable energy. India is projected to be a significant contributor to global energy demand, contributing around one-quarter of the total. Thus, the energy produced should be as sustainably as possible—that is to say, the power generated by energy use should be much greater than the resulting waste and pollution.
India has a vast renewable energy potential through wind, solar, biomass, and small hydro which is concentrated in certain parts of the country. But to tap on these endowments, India’s renewable energy sector requires significant financing.
Steps were taken by India: • India intends to achieve 40% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030, as one of the ways to curb global temperature increase. • Indian Government has also focussed its attention on the rural clean energy sector by supporting distributed generation in the form of community-based, self-sufficient biomass and solar power. • National Solar Mission also has an ambitious goal of providing 2 crore solar lighting systems in place of kerosene lamps to rural communities. • Installations of solar power systems, particularly on rooftops, all over the country. The target of 40 GW rooftop solar by 2022 will result in the abatement of about 6 crore tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.
Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy is integral to global development in the twenty first century. But, there are challenges that require a pragmatic, multi-faceted approach. Solutions need to be developed at both local and global scale, where Governments and agencies must work together. Thus, a robust national framework for implementation and funding support for states would be critical to achieving the desired targets. A dedicated nodal agency at the center to coordinate effectively with the state-level agencies could help.