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The Industrial Revolution Textbook With Solution PDF Free Download
Chapter 9: The Industrial Revolution
Britain was the first country to experience modern industrialisation. It had been politically stable since the seventeenth century, with England, Wales and Scotland unified under a monarchy.
This meant that the kingdom had common laws, a single currency and a market that was not fragmented by local authorities levying taxes on goods that passed through their area, thus increasing their price.
By the end of the seventeenth century, money was widely used as the medium of exchange.
By then a large section of the people received their income in the form of wages and salaries rather than in goods.
This gave people a wider choice for ways to spend their earnings and expanded the market for the sale of goods. In the eighteenth century, England had been through a major economic change, later described as the ‘agricultural revolution’.
This was the process by which bigger landlords had bought up small farms near their own properties and enclosed the village common lands, thus creating very large estates and increasing food production.
This forced landless farmers, and those who had lived by grazing animals on the common lands, to search for jobs elsewhere. Most of them went to nearby towns.
From the eighteenth century, many towns in Europe were growing in area and in population. Out of the 19 European cities whose population doubled between 1750 and 1800, 11 were in Britain.
The largest of them was London, which served as the hub of the country’s markets, with the next largest ones located close to it. London had also acquired a global significance.
By the eighteenth century, the centre of global trade had shifted from the Mediterranean ports of Italy and France to the Atlantic ports of Holland and Britain.
Still later, London replaced Amsterdam as the principal source of loans for international trade. London also became the centre of a triangular trade network that drew in England, Africa and the West Indies.
The companies trading in America and Asia also had their offices in London. In England the movement of goods between markets was helped by a good network of rivers, and an indented coastline with sheltered bays.
Until the spread of railways, transport by waterways was cheaper and faster than by land. As early as 1724, English rivers provided some 1,160 miles of navigable water, and except for mountainous areas, most places in the country were within 15 miles of a river.
Since all the navigable sections of English rivers flow into the sea, cargo on river vessels was easily transferred to coastal ships called coasters. By 1800, at least 100,000 sailors worked on the coasters.
The centre of the country’s financial system was the Bank of England (founded in 1694). By 1784, there were more than a hundred provincial banks in England, and during the next 10 years their numbers trebled.
By the 1820s, there were more than 600 banks in the provinces, and over 100 banks in London alone.
The financial requirements to establish and maintain big industrial enterprises were met by these banks.
The industrialisation that occurred in Britain from the 1780s to the 1850s is explained partly by the factors described above many poor people from the villages available to work in towns; banks which could loan money to set up large industries; and a good transport network.
The following pages will describe two new factors: a range of technological changes that increased production levels dramatically and a new transport network created by the construction of railways.
In both developments, if the dates are read carefully, one will notice that there is a gap of a few decades between the development and its widespread application.
One must not assume that a new innovation in technology led to it being used in the industry immediately. Of the 26,000 inventions recorded in the eighteenth century, more than half were listed for the period 1782-1800.
These led to many changes. We shall discuss the four major ones: the transformation of the iron industry, the spinning and weaving of cotton, the development of steam ‘power’ and the coming of the railways
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 History Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution
How did Britain’s involvement in wars from 1793 to 1815 affect British industries?
Both Britain and France were at war between 1793 to 1815. The industries of Britain were badly affected with this war. That is why Britain was unable to get capital formation and reinvestment during war period.
It had to use borrowed capital to fight rather than reinvestment. Due to war, factories were shut down. Trade declined. The prices of essential commodities were very high. So, this war affected British industries in many ways.
What were the relative advantages of canal and railway transportation?
Advantages of Canal Transportation: It was the cheapest mode of transportation. It was made easier to transport heavier goods from mines to factories.
When big cities and towns were linked to these canals, the city people were able to get various essential commodities such as coal and tool items at cheaper rate.
Advantages of Rail Transportation: The use of railways helped in increasing the production of coal and iron industry. It also did a lot of help. Railways helped in carrying heavy goods through various regions of the country.
What were the interesting features of the inventions of this period?
The interesting features of the inventions of this period are as follows:
- At first, Abraham Darby brought about a revolution in the metallurgical industry.
- Henry Cort (1740-1823) designed the puddling furnace and rolling mill to roll purified iron into bars.
- In the 1770s, John Wilkinson made the first iron chairs, vats for breweries and iron pipes of all sizes.
- John Kay made the flying shuttle loom in 1733. It made possible to weave broader fabrics in less time.
- Edmund Cartwright invented power loom in 1787.
- Thomas Savery built a model steam engine called the Miner’s friend in 1698 to drain mines.
- James Watt developed a steam engine in 1769 that converted the steam engine from a pump into a ‘prime mover’.
NCERT Class 11 History Textbook Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution With Answer PDF Free Download