Paths to Modernisation NCERT Textbook With Solution PDF

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 11 Paths to Modernisation‘ PDF Quick download link is given at the bottom of this article. You can see the PDF demo, size of the PDF, page numbers, and direct download Free PDF of ‘Ncert Class 11 History Chapter 11 Exercise Solution’ using the download button.

Paths to Modernisation Textbook With Solution PDF Free Download


Chapter 11: Paths to Modernisation

China and Japan present a marked physical contrast. China is a vast continental country that spans many climatic zones;

the core is dominated by three major river systems: the Yellow River (Huang He), the Yangtse River (Chang Jiang – the third longest river in the world) and the Pearl River. A large part of the country is mountainous.

 The dominant ethnic group are the Han and the major language is Chinese (Putonghua) but there are many other nationalities, such as the Uighur, Hui, Manchu and Tibetan, and aside from dialects, such as Cantonese (Yue) and Shanghainese (Wu), there are other minority languages spoken as well. Chinese food reflects this regional diversity with at least four distinct types.

The best known is southern or Cantonese cuisine – as most overseas Chinese come from the Canton area which includes dim sum (literally touch your heart), an assortment of pastries and dumplings.

In the north, wheat is the staple food, while in Szechuan spices brought by Buddhist monks in the ancient period, along the silk route, and chillies by Portuguese traders in the fifteenth century, have created a fiery cuisine. In eastern China, both rice and wheat are eaten.

Japan, by contrast, is a string of islands, the four largest being Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku and Hokkaido. The Okinawan chain is the southernmost, about the same latitude as the Bahamas.

More than 50 per cent of the land area of the main islands is mountainous and Japan is situated in a very active earthquake zone. These geographical conditions have influenced architecture.

The population is largely Japanese but there are a small Ainu minority and Koreans who were forcibly brought as labour when Korea was a Japanese colony.

Japan lacks a tradition of animal rearing. Rice is the staple crop and fish the major source of protein.

Raw fish (sashimi or sushi) has now become a widely popular dish around the world as it is considered very healthy. 

An emperor had ruled Japan from Kyoto but by the twelfth century the imperial court lost power to shoguns, who in theory ruled in the name of the emperor.

From 1603 to 1867, members of the Tokugawa family held the position of shogun. The country was divided into over 250 domains under the rule of lords called daimyo.

The shogun exercised power over the domainal lords, ordering them to stay at the capital Edo (modern Tokyo) for long periods so that they would not pose a threat.

He also controlled the major cities and mines. The samurai (the warrior class) were the ruling elite and served the shoguns and daimyo.

In the late sixteenth century, three changes laid the pattern for future development. One, the peasantry was disarmed and only the samurai could carry swords.

This ensured peace and order, ending the frequent wars of the previous century. Two, the daimyo were ordered to live in the capitals of their domains, each with a large degree of autonomy.

Third, land surveys identified owners and taxpayers and graded land productivity to ensure a stable revenue base.

The daimyo’s capitals became bigger so that by the mid-seventeenth century, Japan not only had the most populated city in the world Edo but also two other large cities – Osaka and Kyoto, and at least half a dozen castle-towns with populations of over 50,000. (By contrast, most European countries of the time had only one largercity.)

This led to the growth of a commercial economy, and created financial and credit systems. A person’s merit began to be more valued than his status.

A vibrant culture blossomed in the towns, where the fast-growing class of merchants patronised theatre and the arts.

As people enjoyed reading, it became possible for gifted writers to earn a living solely by writing. In Edo, people could ‘rent’ a book for the price of a bowl of noodles. This shows how popular reading had become and gives a glimpse into the scale of printing*.

Language English
No. of Pages36
PDF Size4.6 MB

NCERT Solutions Class 11 History Chapter 11 Paths to Modernisation

Question 1.
What were the major developments before the Meiji restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernise rapidly?
The following developments helped in the modernization of Japan before the Meiji restoration:

  • Peasants were not allowed to carry arms, only Samurai could carry swords now.
  • Growth of population led to the growth of commercial economy.
  • Efforts were made to develop silk industry.
  • People developed reading habits.
  • The export of precious metals restricted.
  • Theater and arts were patronized in towns.
  • Land surveys were made.

Question 2.
Discuss how daily life was transformed as Japan developed?
Earlier in Japan, the patriarchal household system prevailed. In it, many generations lived together under the control of the head of the family. New ideas of the family spread. People became more affluent. Homu, the new home was a nuclear family where husband and wife lived together. The new concept of domesticity generated demands for new types of domestic goods and new forms of farming.

Question 3.
How did the Qing dynasty try and meet the challenge posed by the Western powers?
The Qing dynasty could not meet the challenges posed by the Western powers. They utterly failed. The Qing dynasty also demanded change in the country. But they also failed in this endeavour.

NCERT Class 11 History Textbook Chapter 11 Paths to Modernisation With Answer PDF Free Download

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