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NCERT Class 12 Political Science Textbook Chapter 7 With Answer PDF Free Download
Chapter 4: Security in the Contemporary World
At its most basic, security implies freedom from threats. Human existence and the life of a country are full of threats.
Does that mean that every single threat counts as a security threat? Every time a person steps out of his or her house, there is some degree of threat to their existence and way of life.
Our world would be saturated with security issues if we took such a broad view of what is threatening.
Those who study security, therefore, generally say that only those things that threaten ‘core
values’ should be regarded as being of interest in discussions of security.
Whose core values though? The core values of the country as a whole? The core values of ordinary women and men in the street?
Do governments, on behalf of citizens, always have the same notion of core values as ordinary citizens?
Furthermore, when we speak of threats to core values, how intense should the threats be?
Surely there are big and small threats to virtually every value we hold dear.
Can all those threats be brought into the understanding of security? Every time another country does something or fails to do something, this may damage the core values of one’s country.
Every time a person is robbed in the streets, the security of ordinary people as they live their
daily lives is harmed.
Yet, we would be paralyzed if we took such an extensive view of security: everywhere we looked, the world would be full of dangers.
So we are brought to a conclusion: security relates only to extremely dangerous threats—
threats that could so endanger core values that those values would be damaged beyond repair
if we did not do something to deal with the situation.
Having said that, we must admit that security remains a slippery idea. For instance, have
societies always had the same conception of security?
It would be surprising if they did because so many things change in the world around us. And, at any given time in world history, do all societies have the same conception of security?
Again, it would be amazing if six hundred and fifty crore people, organized in nearly 200 countries, had the same conception of security!
Let us begin by putting the various notions of security under two groups: traditional and non-traditional conceptions of security.
Most of the time, when we read and hear about security we are talking about traditional, national
security conceptions of security.
In the traditional conception of security, the greatest danger to a country is from military threats.
The source of this danger is another country that by threatening military action endangers the core values of sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity. Military action also endangers the lives of ordinary citizens.
It is unlikely that in war only soldiers will be hurt or killed. Quite often, ordinary men and women are made targets of war, to break their support of the war.
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World
1. Explain any four components of India’s security strategy.
Answer: (a) To strengthen its military capabilities:
(i) India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbors as Pakistan in 1947-48,1965,1971, 1999, and China in 1962.
(ii) In the South Asian region, India is surrounded by nuclear-armed countries.
(b) To strengthen international norms and institutions:
(i) India’s first Prime Minister J.L. Nehru supported Asian solidarity, disarmament, decolonization, and the UN as a forum to settle down the international conflict.
(ii) It used non-alignment to help to carry out an area of peace outside the blocs.
(c) To meet security challenges within the country:
(i) Several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab, and Kashmir have sought to break away from India.
(ii) India has made efforts to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system by providing freedom of speech and expression along with the right to vote.
(d) To develop its economy:
(i) India develops a way to lift the vast mass of citizens out of poverty, misery, and huge economic inequalities.
(ii) A democraticallj^ elected government is supposed to combine economic growth with human development without any demarcation between the rich and the poor.
2. Identify and explain any four new sources of threats to security.
Answer: Four new sources of threats to security can be identified as follows:
1. Terrorism is a war against democracy and a crime against humanity. It refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and discriminately to use it as a weapon against the national government. It has become a global phenomenon because even a superpower is not free from terrorist attacks.
2. Human rights are those basic conditions that an individual is supposed to enjoy as a human being. These rights include political rights, freedom of speech and expression, economic rights, social and civil rights, and rights of indigenous people to lead an honorable and dignified life.
3. Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income, and low standard of living in developing or least developed countries.
4. Health epidemics are a very serious threat to a country’s security because severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), HIV-AIDS, bird flu, etc. diseases spread across countries through migration business, tourism, and military operations.
3. How is global poverty a source of insecurity? Explain.
Answer.: Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income, and low standard of living in developing or least developed countries. It is a source of insecurity because:
1. Half the world’s population growth occurs in just six countries- India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and Indonesia, considered developing countries, and even in the poorest countries population is expected to triple in the next 50 years.
2. Globally, this disparity contributes to the gap between the northern and southern countries of the world.
3. Poverty in the south has also led to a large migration to seek better economic opportunities in the north.
4. All these created international political friction as international law and norms make a distinction between migrants and refugees as they do not get ready to accept migrants.
4. Which third weapon both the superpowers did not want to give up under the concept of disarmament?
Answer: Disarmament requires all states to give up certain kinds of weapons i.e. the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) banned the production and possession of these weapons.
The US and Soviet Union were not ready to give up the third type of weapons of mass destruction namely nuclear weapons.
5. “The secure states do not imply the secure people in itself’. Examine the statement.
Answer: The secure states are supposed to protect their people from an individual in security also rather the territorial security only.
Hence they are required to provide security from foreign attacks hunger, diseases, natural disasters, etc. because it destructs the people rather than a war.
Security in the Contemporary World NCERT Textbook With Solutions PDF Free Download