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NCERT Class 12 Political Science Textbook Chapter 6 With Answer PDF Free Download
Chapter 6: International Organisations
International organizations are helpful in another way. Nations can usually see that there
are some things they must do together.
There are issues that are so challenging that they can only be dealt with when everyone works together. The disease is an example.
Some diseases can only be eradicated if everyone in the world cooperates in inoculating or vaccinating their populations.
Unfortunately, recognizing the need for cooperation and actually cooperating are two different
Nations can recognize the need to cooperate but cannot always agree on how best to do so, how to share the costs of cooperating, how to make sure that the benefits of cooperating are
justly divided, and how to ensure that others do not break their end of the bargain and cheat on an agreement.
An international organization can help produce information and ideas about how to cooperate.
The First World War encouraged the world to invest in an international organisation to deal
Many believed that such an organisation would help the world avoid war. As a result, the League of Nations was born.
However, despite its initial success, it could not prevent the Second World War (1939-45). Many more people died and were wounded in this war than ever before.
The UN was founded as a successor to the League of Nations. It was established in 1945 immediately after the will be fairly divided, and once a member joins an agreement it
will honor the terms and conditions of the agreement.
we can see that the UN may have a slightly different role.
As the United States and its allies emerged victorious, there was concern amongst many governments and people that the Western countries led by the US would be so powerful that there would be no check against their wishes and desires.
Can the UN serve to promote dialogue and discussion with the US in particular, and could it limit the power of the Americans.
The UN consists of many different structures and agencies. War and peace and differences
between member states are discussed in the General Assembly as well as the Security
Social and economic issues are dealt with by many agencies including the World Health Organisation (WHO).
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Human Rights Commission (UNHRC), the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), among others.
Reform and improvement are fundamental for any organization to serve the needs of a changing
The UN is no exception. In recent years, there have been demands for reform of
the world body. However, there is little clarity and consensus on the nature of reform.
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 International Organisations
1. Describe any six criteria for the new members of the Security Council as suggested after 1997.
Answer: A new member, as suggested after 1997, should be
(i ) A major economic power
(ii) A major military power.
(iii) A substantial contributor to the UN budget.
(iv) A big nation in terms of its populations.
(v) A nation that respects democracy and human rights
(vi) A country that would make the Council more representative of the world’s diversity in terms of geography, economic system, and culture.
2. Examine the role played by India in the implementation of UN policies and programs.
Answer: 1. India believes that a strengthened and revitalized UN is desirable in the changing world.
2. India also supports an enhanced role for the UN in promoting development and cooperation among states.
3. India believes that development should be central to the UN’s agenda as it is a vital precondition for the maintenance of international peace and security.
4. India debates more representation in Security Council may enjoy greater support in the world community.
5. India has major concerns about the restructuring of the UN Security Council.
6. India supports the role of developing countries should be represented in Security Council in decision making.
3. How far did the UN perform its role successor fully in maintaining peace in the world? Explain.
Answer: 1. Interdependence and globalization is not possible without international organizations such as the UN.
2. To enhance cooperation on the issues of poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation, crime rate etc.
3. To provide financial assistance to developing countries to stabilize economies all over the world, the UN and its specialized agencies are always required.
4. The UN works as a forum to solve any international dispute among nations and sort out the best possible.
5. Hence, the UN has failed in preventing any related wars and miseries, despite the nations requiring its continuation due to the above-mentioned reasons to promote international peace and understanding.
4. Suggest any six steps since 2005 to make the United Nations more relevant in the changing context.
Answer: In September 2005, the UN celebrated its 60th anniversary and leaders decided to make it more relevant in the changing context by following steps:
1. Creation of Peace Building Commission.
2. Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community in case of failures of national governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
3. Establishment of a Human Rights Council (Operational Since 19 June 2006).
4. Agreements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
5. Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
6. Creation of a Democracy Fund.
7. An agreement to wind up the Trusteeship Council.
5. Can the UN serve as a balance against the US dominance?
Answer: No, the UN can not serve against the US dominance in a comfort zone because:
1. The US has been the only superpower after 1991 and may ignore international organizations economically and militarily.
2. Its veto power can stop any move damaging its interests.
3. The US enjoys a considerable degree of say in the selection of the UN Secretary-General.
Besides the above-mentioned grounds, the UN is playing an effective role to arguing against the US attitudes and policies and making compromises and concessions even on the part of the US.
The EU performs as an important bloc in International Economic Organisations such as WTO but SAARC has initiated SAFTA only to cooperate economically among its member states.
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