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Peace NCERT Textbook With Solutions Book PDF Free Download
Chapter 9: Peace
Like ‘democracy’, ‘justice’ and ‘human rights’, ‘peace’ has become a buzzword. But we must remember that this seeming consensus on the desirability of peace is relatively recent. Many important thinkers of the past wrote about peace in negative terms.
The nineteenth-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was one of those who glorified war.
Nietzsche did not value peace because he believed that only conflict could facilitate the growth of civilisation. Several other thinkers have similarly condemned peace and commended strife as a vehicle of individual heroism and social vitality.
The Italian social theorist, Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923), argued that people who were able
and willing to use force to achieve their goals constituted the governing elites in most societies.
He described them as ‘lions’. This is not to suggest that the cause of peace had no champions.
In fact, it occupied a central place in the original teachings of almost all religions.
The modern era too has witnessed ardent advocates of peace, both in the spiritual and secular domains. Mahatma Gandhi would figure prominently among them.
However, the contemporary preoccupation with peace can be traced to the atrocities of the twentieth century, which resulted in the death of millions of human beings.
You may have read about some of these events in your history textbooks: the rise of Fascism, Nazism and the World Wars. Closer home in India and Pakistan we have experienced the horrors of Partition.
Many of the aforesaid calamities involved the use of advanced technology to wreak havoc on an unprecedented scale. Thus, Germany ‘carpet-bombed’ London during the Second World War
and the British responded by sending 1000-bomber raids to attack German cities.
The war ended with the USA dropping atom bombs on the Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
At least 1,20,000 people died immediately from the two attacks and many more died
later due to the effects of nuclear radiation. Nearly 95 per cent of the casualties were civilians.
The post-war decades were marked by intense rivalry between two superpowers–the capitalist USA and the communist USSR—for world supremacy. Since nuclear weapons had become the
new currency of power, both countries began to make and stockpile them on a large scale.
The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 was a particularly dark episode in this unfolding military competition. It began when American spy planes discovered Soviet nuclear missiles
in neighbouring Cuba.
The USA responded by organising a naval blockade of Cuba and threatening military action against the USSR, if the missiles were not removed.
This eyeball-to-eyeball confrontation ended when the Soviet Union withdrew the missiles. During the two weeks it lasted, the crisis had brought humanity perilously close to the brink of total destruction.
So, if people praise peace today, that is not merely because they believe it to be a good idea. Humanity has learnt to value peace after paying a huge price for its absence.
The spectre of tragic conflict continues to haunt us. Today life is more insecure than ever before as people everywhere face a growing threat from terrorism. Peace continues to be valuable, partly because dangers to it are ever present.
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Peace
Do you think that a change towards a peaceful world, needs a change in the way people think? Can mind promote peace and is it enough to focus only on the human mind?
A thought process of persons requires a positive attitude to promote peace because mind controls the way of thinking and behaviour of human beings.
- Mind promotes peace but a wrong mind or attitude can create war.
- Gautam Buddha also stated that all wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?
- The UNESCO also observed since wars begin in the minds of humans, it is also in the mind of men to make an approach in a peaceful manner.
- To facilitate such an endeavour various spiritual principles like compassion and practices like meditation perform peaceful approaches.
- Though violence does not originate only in individual psyche but deeprooted also in certain social structures.
- Peace is process involving an active pursuit of the moral and material resources needed to establish human welfare.
A State must protect the lives and rights of its citizens. However, at times its own actions are a source of violence against some of-its citizens. Comment with the help of some examples.
- Human beings created state for one’s own protection of honour and property.
- State maintains law and order.
- State protects the rights of its citizens by providing them a constitution, laws, police, judiciary and armed forces.
- State make efforts to end any type of violence created by social injustice and inequality based discrimination’s like untouchability, etc.
- A state should avoid those actions which may be a source of violence against some particular groups.
Some examples are:
- In 1984, a huge massacre of nearly 4,000 Sikhs took place in Delhi and the government could do nothing and even today, the victims feel that the guilty were not punished.
- Khalistan movement also forced Hindus to leave Punjab, Haryana and Delhi and Sikhs were forced to move to punjab and Hindu Kashmiri Pandits. Sikhs were also forced to leave Kashmir Valley. And they could not return their home.
- Several Hindus and Muslims were massacred in Gujarat in 2002 and still today these members could not go back to the villages in which they lived.
- During the communist rule in USSR, peoples faced violence not to like the authoritarian policies of state.
NCERT Class 11 Political Science Textbook Chapter 9 Peace With Answer PDF Free Download