Human Development NCERT Textbook With Solution PDF

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Psychology Chapter 4 Human Development‘ PDF Quick download link is given at the bottom of this article. You can see the PDF demo, size of the PDF, page numbers, and direct download Free PDF of ‘Ncert Class 11 Psychology Chapter 4 Exercise Solution’ using the download button.

Human Development Textbook With Solution PDF Free Download

human-development

Chapter 4: Human Development

Just as any building is supported by pillars, the idea of human development is supported by the concepts of equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment.

Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste.

Yet this is very often not the case and happens in almost every society. For example, in any country, it is interesting to see which group the most of the school dropouts belong to.

This should then lead to an understanding of the reasons for such behaviour.

In India, a large number of women and persons belonging to socially and economically backward groups drop out of school.

This shows how the choices of these groups get limited by not having access to knowledge.

Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities. To have sustainable human development, each generation must have the same opportunities.

All environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the future. Misuse of any of these resources will lead to fewer opportunities for future generations.

A good example is about the importance of sending girls to school. If a community does not stress the importance of sending its girl children to school, many opportunities will be lost to these young women when they grow up.

Their career choices will be severely curtailed and this would affect other aspects of their lives.

So each generation must ensure the availability of choices and opportunities to its future generations.

Productivity here means human labor productivity or productivity in terms of human work. Such productivity must be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people.

Ultimately, it is people who are the real wealth of nations. Therefore, efforts to increase their knowledge, or provide better health facilities ultimately leads to better work efficiency.

Empowerment means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and capability. Good governance and people-oriented policies are required to empower people.

The empowerment of socially and economically disadvantaged groups is of special importance.

The human development index (HDI) ranks the countries based on their performance in the key areas of health, education and access to resources.

These rankings are based on a score between 0 to 1 that a country earns from its record in the key areas of human development.

The indicator chosen to assess health is the life expectancy at birth. A higher life expectancy means that people have a greater chance of living longer and healthier lives.

The adult literacy rate and the gross enrolment ratio represent access to knowledge.

AuthorNCERT
Language English
No. of Pages9
PDF Size1.8 MB
CategoryPsychology
Source/Creditsncert.nic.in

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Psychology Chapter 4 Human Development

Question 1. What is development? How is it different from growth and maturation?
Answer:  Development is a process by which an individual grows and changes throughout the life cycle.

  • The term Development refers to the changes that have a direction and hold definite relationship with what precedes it.
  • includes changes in size (physical growth), changes in proportion (child to adult), changes in features (disappearance of baby teeth) and acquiring new features.

Development includes growth as one of its aspects.
Growth:

  • Growth refers to an increase in the size of body parts or of the organism as a whole.
  • It can be measured or quantified, e.g. growth in height and weight.

Maturation: refers to the changes that follow an orderly sequence and are largely dictated by the genetic blueprint which produces commonalities in our growth and ” development.

Question 2. Describe the main features of life-span perspective on development.
Answer:

  • The term development means a progressive series of changes that occur as a result of maturation and experience.
  • Development implies qualitative changes in behaviour.
  • Development does not consist merely of adding inches to one’s height or of improving one’s ability.
  • It is a complex process of integrating many structures and functions.

The study of development according to the Life-span perspective (LSP) includes the following assumptions:

  • Development is life long i.e. it takes place across all age groups starting from conception to old age. It includes both gains and losses, which interact in dynamic (change in one aspect goes with changes in others) ways throughout the life-span.
  • The various Process of human development i.e. biological, cognitive and socio- emotional are interwoven in the development of a person throughout the lifespan.
  • Development is multi-directional. Some dimensions or components of a given dimension of development may increase, with others show decrement, e.g. the experiences of adults may make them wiser and guide their decisions. However, with an increase in age, one’s performance is likely to decrease on tasks requiring speed, such as running.
  • Development is highly plastic, i.e. within a person, modifiability is found in psychological development, though plasticity varies among individuals.
  • Development is influenced by historical conditions, e.g. The career orientation of school students today is very different from those students who were in schools 50 years ago.
  • Development is the concern of a number of disciplines. Different disciplines like psychology, anthropology, sociology and neuro-sciences study human development with different perspectives.
  • An individual responds and acts in a particular context, e.g. the life events in everyone’s life are not the same such as death of a parent, accident, earthquake etc affect the course of one’s life as also the positive influences such as winning an award or getting a good job.

NCERT Class 11 Psychology Textbook Chapter 4 Human Development With Answer PDF Free Download

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