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Sensory, Attentional, And Perceptual Processes Textbook With Solution PDF Free Download
Chapter 5: Sensory, Attentional And Perceptual Processes
The world in which we live is full of a variety of objects, people, and events. Look at the room you are sitting in. You will find so many things around.
Just to mention a few, you may see your table, your chair, your books, your bag, your watch, pictures on the wall and many other things.
Their sizes, shapes, and colours are also different. If you move to other rooms of your house, you will notice several other new things (e.g., pots and pans, almirah, TV).
If you go beyond your house, you will find still many more things that you generally know about (trees, animals, buildings). Such experiences are very common in our day-to-day life.
We hardly have to make any effort to know them. If someone asks you, “How can you say that these various things exist in your room, or house, or in the outside environment?”, you will most probably answer that you see or experience them all around you.
In doing so, you are trying to tell the person that knowledge about various objects becomes possible with the help of our sense organs (e.g., eyes, ears).
These organs collect information The external environment that surrounds us contains a wide variety of stimuli.
Some of them can be seen (e.g., a house), while some can be heard only (e.g., music). There are several others that we can smell (e.g., the fragrance of a flower) or taste (e.g., sweets).
There are still others that we can experience by touching (e.g., softness of a cloth). All these stimuli provide us with various kinds of information.
We have very specialised sense organs to deal with these different stimuli. As human beings we are bestowed with a set of seven sense organs.
These sense organs are also known as sensory receptors or information gathering systems, because they receive or gather information from a variety of sources.
Five of these sense organs collect information from the external world.
These are eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. While our eyes are primarily responsible for vision, ears for hearing, nose for smell, and tongue for taste, skin is responsible for the experiences of touch, warmth, cold, and pain.
Specialised receptors of warmth, cold, and pain are found inside our skin. Besides these five external sense organs, we have also got two deep senses.
They are called kinesthetic and vestibular systems. They provide us with important information about our body position and the movement of body parts related to each other.
With these seven sense organs, we register ten different varieties of stimuli. For example, you may notice whether a light is bright or dim, whether it is yellow, red or green, and so on.
With sound, you may notice whether it is loud or faint, whether it is melodious or distracting, and so on. These different qualities of stimuli are also registered by our sense organs.
Our sense organs provide us with first-hand information about our external or internal world. The initial experience of a stimulus or an object registered by a particular sense organ is called sensation.
It is a process through which we detect and encode a variety of physical stimuli. Sensation also refers to immediate basic experiences of stimulus attributes, such as “hard”, “warm”, “loud”, and “blue”, which result from appropriate stimulation of a sensory organ.
Different sense organs deal with different forms of stimuli and serve different purposes. Each sense organ is highly specialised for dealing with a particular kind of information.
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Psychology Chapter 5 Sensory, Attentional And Perceptual Processes
Question 1. Explain the functional limitations of sense organs.
Answer: Sense organs function with certain limitations. For example our eyes cannot see things which are very dim or very bright.
Similarly, our ears cannot hear very faint or very loud sounds. The same is true for other organs also. As human beings, we function within a limited range of stimulation. For being noticed by a sensory receptor a stimulus has to be of an optimal intensity or magnitude.
Question 2. What is meant by light and dark adaptation? How do they take place?
Answer: Bright adaptation refers to the process of adjusting to bright light after exposure to dim light. This process takes nearly a minute or two.
Dark adaptation refers to the process of adjusting to a dimly illuminated environment after exposure to bright light. This may take half an hour or even longer depend on the previous level of exposure of the eye to light. The dark-adapted eye is about 100,000 times more sensitive to light than the light-adapted eye.
Question 3. What is colour vision and what are the dimensions of colour?
- A person’s ability to distinguish different shades of colour is termed colour vision.
- Person with normal colour vision can distinguish more than seven million different shades of colour.
- There are three basic dimensions of colour-hue, saturation, and brightness.
- Hue is property of chromatic colours. It refers to the name of the colour, e.g.,red, blue, and green. Hue varies with wavelength, and each colour is identified with a specific wavelength. For example, blue has a wavelength of about 465 nm. and green of about 500 nm. achromatic colours like black, white or grey are not characterised by hues. .
- Saturation is a psychological attribute that refers to the relative amount of hue of a surface or object.
- The light of single wavelength (monochromatic) appears to be highly saturated.
- As we mix different wavelengths, the saturation decrease. The colour grey is completely unsaturated.
- Brightness is the perceived intensity of light. It varies across both chromatic and achromatic colours.
- White and black represent the top and bottom of the brightness dimension.
- White has the highest degree of brightness, whereas black has the lowest degree.
NCERT Class 11 Psychology Textbook Chapter 5 Sensory, Attentional And Perceptual Processes With Answer PDF Free Download