Types And Phases of Evaluation In Education PDF

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Types of Evaluation in Education PDF

Evaluation is a part of life. Even in small things like which dress to wear for work, what gift to buy, or when to cross the road, an evaluation has to be made.

In education, evaluation is all the more important because only through evaluation a teacher can judge the growth and development of students, the changes taking place in their behavior, the progress they are making in the class, and also the effectiveness of her/ his own teaching in the class, Thus, evaluation has been an integral part of any teaching and learning situation.

In fact, evaluation plays a pivotal role in deciding what the learners learn and what the teachers teach.

It exerts an overwhelming influence on our system of, education. The National Curriculum Framework for School Education, 2000, observes, “Teaching for successful learning cannot occur without high-quality evaluation.

“The quality of any educational system is, thus, directly liked on the quality of the evaluation, The present scenario of evaluation at different stages of schooling in the country does not present a very bright picture as it suffers from a number of imperfections, One of the reasons for the problems regarding evaluation is that several school teachers are not aware of the concept of evaluation, what is involved in the process of evaluation and how to utilize results fruitfully.

This unawareness of some teachers has led them to test their students in a haphazard manner in both internal and external examinations.

The situation requires that the teachers must be well-trained in all aspects of evaluation in order to improve the quality of education.

This unit will help the teachers to have an idea of the concept of evaluation, types of evaluation, the purpose of evaluation, principles of evaluation, and characteristics of a good evaluation program which in turn will enable them to design a good evaluation program for their classes and utilize evaluation meaningfully.

It will also enable them to understand the unique nature of evaluation in English.

Meaning Of Evaluation

The word ‘evaluation’ is often confused with testing and measurement. fierce ore, many a time teachers who give a test to the students, think that they are evaluating the achievement of the students.

Testing is only a technique to collect evidence regarding pupil behavior. Measurement, on the other hand, is limited to the quantitative description of the pupil’s behavior.

Evaluation is a more comprehensive term that includes testing and measurement and also a qualitative description of the pupil’s behavior.

It also includes value judgment regarding the worth or desirability of the behavior measured or assessed.

Therefore, Gronlund (1981) has indicated this relationship in the following equation: Evaluation = quantitative description of pupils (measurement) + value judgment Evaluation = qualitative description of pupils (non-measurement) + value judgment Thus, evaluation may not be based on measurement alone but it goes beyond the simple quantitative score.

For example, if a child gets 60 marks on an English language test,

It alone does not tell us whether higher achievement is satisfactory or not. It is only when we compare this mark of 60 percent with the marks obtained by other children in the class with certain criteria laid down in advance, or with the child’s own marks in previous tests, that we are able to judge or evaluate whether higher achievement in English is satisfactory or not.

Thus, a student’s achievement may be viewed at three different levels: Thus evaluation is a systematic process of collecting evidence about students’ &d achievement in both cognitive and non-cognitive areas of learning on fie basis of which judgments are formed and decisions are made.

Types Of Evaluation

Specifically, there are three types of evaluation used in the classroom. These are summative evaluation, formative evaluation, and diagnostic evaluation.

Summative Evaluation is the commonly known type of evaluation. It comes at the end of the term, course, or program of teaching.

It involves formal testing of pupil achievement. Annual examinations half-yearly examinations in schools, and public examinations are examples of such evaluations.

The purpose of this kind of evaluation is to grade, rank, classify, compare, and promote the pupils. It is also used for the purpose of certification.

Summative evaluation is also used for selecting students for scholarships or for admission to particular courses.

The prediction regarding the success of students in their future endeavors can also be made on this basis.

Formative Evaluation, on the other hand, is built into the process of teaching and learning. It is done during the course of instruction with a view to improving students’ learning.

The purpose of this evaluation is to provide feedback regarding the student’s progress, by finding out the learning gaps and the weak points. The teacher can then organize remedial programs for them.

The formative evaluation also provides the teacher feedback regarding the efficiency of the teaching methods, so that the teaching can be improved.

It can also provide clues to the effectiveness of the course content and teaching materials.

For example, after teaching and testing a unit, the teachers can evaluate whether the content taught was appropriate for that level and whether the textbook dealt with that content in an appropriate manner that the students could understand easily.

Thus, the main purpose of formative evaluation is to improve learning

Diagnostic Evaluation is another kind of evaluation that is more closely related to formative than summative evaluation. In fact, it is to be carried out along with formative evaluation in the class. Sometimes, even the summative evaluation may be used for diagnostic purposes.

Language English
No. of Pages13
PDF Size0.3 MB

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